This module is a resource for lecturers  


Key issues


There is significant confusion surrounding hacktivism, cyberespionage, cyberterrorism, cyberwarfare, information warfare, disinformation, and electoral fraud. These terms have been used by the media, politicians, academics, and practitioners often interchangeably. The misuse of these terms has led to violations of the rule of law and human rights against those viewed as engaging in these activities.

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