Corruption: legal framework
United Nations Convention against Corruption
The main international legal instrument on corruption is the
United Nations Convention against Corruption, approved in 2003 by the UN General Assembly. With its entry into force on 14 December 2005, the Convention became the first anti-corruption legal instrument to establish binding rules to the signatory countries. The Convention provides a path for the creation of a global response to a global problem.
To access the Convention's full text in the six UN official languages, follow the list of signatory countries and the ratification status of each country, as well as technical guidelines and manuals on how to implement the document's articles, go to the Convention's page.
Inter-American convention against Corruption
Within the Organization of American States' (OAS) area of action, the Inter-American Convention against Corruption was signed on 29 March 1996, in Caracas, Venezuela. It was approved In Brazil by Legislative Decree 152 of 25 June 2002, and promulgated by Presidential Decree 4,410 of 7 October 2002.
Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions
The challenge to fight international corruption in a scenario of increasing globalization subsidized the conception of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions.
On 17 December 1997, the Convention was signed by OECD's Member States, with the addition of Brazil, Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile and Slovakia. The Convention entered into force in 1999. In Brazil, the Convention was ratified on 15 June 2000 and promulgated by Decree nº 3,678 of 30 November 2000. The main objective of the Convention is to prevent and fight corruption of foreign public officials in international business transactions.
According to the Fiscal Responsibility Law in Argentina, documentation and information regarding the National Public Administration are considered "public documents", with free access to any institution or person concerned. In its Transparency page (in Spanish), the government of Argentina make available information concerning legislation, patrimony and access to public information.
Brazil has a vast legal apparatus which comprises auditing and controlling as well as corruption prevention and public official's performance auditing. To access laws, decrees, codes of conduct and resolutions that regulate the subject, access: www.cgu.gov.br/AreaPrevencaoCorrupcao/Legislacao/ (in Portuguese).
On page Transparent Uruguay (in Spanish) it is possible to access the country's legal framework on corruption, including rules on misuse of public power, protection of personal data and the right to access public information.