Corruption is a complex social, political and economic phenomenon that affects all countries. Corruption contributes to instability and undermines international security. It attacks the foundation of democratic institutions by distorting electoral processes and perverting the rule of law. It undermines equitable economic development and exacerbates poverty. As such corruption has been indentified as a major impediment to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon emphasized on the occasion of International Anti-Corruption Day on 9 December 2009 that it is the world's vulnerable who suffer "first and worst" by corruption.

In Nigeria, corruption has been among the major development challenges of the country. The Nigerian Government has established the war against corruption among the eight pillars upon which to build its Vision 20:2020. The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), which was ratified by the Federal Government on 14 December 2004, provides a unique tool for developing a comprehensive response to this global problem. Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon notes that "the UN Convention against Corruption is the world's strongest legal instrument to build integrity and fight corruption".

UNODC, through its Country Office Nigeria, has been cooperating with the Federal Government, its specialized agencies, in particular the EFCC and  the judiciary as well as with civil society and the private sector in combating corruption since 2001.