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Projects for the Implementation of the Prison Reform in Panama

UNODC ROPAN supports the development of a comprehensive prison reform strategy that addresses prison overcrowding, the large population of people in custody, the lack of staff training, and human rights violations.

Through this initiative, and in an effort to support the Government of Panama in the implementation of reforms, UNODC ROPAN offers assistance and direct technical expertise, as well as financial support, to the Ministry of Government and the Prison System of Panama.

The project "Supporting the prison reform in Panama", with the financial support of the United States Embassy, was implemented based on a programmatic approach divided into two phases. The first phase lasted 20 months (October 2010 - July 2012) which contributed to the design and implementation of a strategic plan for prison reform and strengthening the capacity of staff for better management of the prison system in accordance with the applicable international standards. The second phase (August 2012 - September 2014), complemented these objectives into more specific areas (prison academy, women prisoners, as well as educational, productive and labor projects) that helped to ensure a sustainable and lasting reform of the criminal justice system.

In this context, a roadmap for the implementation of prison reform in Panama (also known as the strategic plan "For a Second Chance") was developed. 

Furthermore, recognizing the importance of the role of prison staff to ensure the daily safety and management of prisons, the Government of Panama has diligently promoted simultaneous and continuous training for the staff of the Prison System. Staff members have become active participants in knowledge networks and peer support forums on prison reform. In an effort to consolidate and strengthen the capacity building of personnel within the prison system, the Panamanian Government reopened the Prison Training Academy in January 2011, leading to the Academy becoming instrumental in the process of reforming the Panamanian prison system.

The Prison Academy boasts a set of rules, an updated curriculum, equipment, furniture and literature that allow for the training of 260 students, who are taught by highly motivated teachers.

Since its opening, 600 new prison custodians were trained, having previously met the entry requirements and test final competition. This staff was assigned to various prisons in the country to replace national police officers who previously covered internal security.  2,400 academic interventions were performed during the management of the Penitentiary Training Academy, in training and updating on prison material in the various fields.

Six consultations were conducted with objective of assessing priority areas for the Ministry of Government, such as health, alternatives to incarceration, the design of an organizational structure, an operational plan and a curriculum for the Prison Training Academy, and the establishment of a data Management System.

As an unprecedented event in the region, and with the support of UNODC, the First Annex Program at the University of Panama was developed in the Women's Rehabilitation Centre offering three technical careers.


Further Activites include:

  • The public campaign titled "Donate a Book to Jail" was launched, donating 8000 books and enabling libraries to be opened in prison centres of Las Tablas, La Joyita and La Joya, the latter with a study hall and computer training;
  • With the financial and technical support of UNODC, new productive projects such as Hydroponics and Tailoring (CEFERE and La Joya) have been created. Six new classrooms for computer training were also equipped in several prison centers: El Renacer, La Joya, CEFERE, La Chorrera, Las Tablas and Bocas del Toro;
  • A care program for women prisoners was designed, and in September 2012 an inter-agency working group was settled down with the aim of creating a space for participation and joint work between the institutions involved with the problematic of women in context of confinement. This working group aims to improve the conditions of detention of these women in line with national and international regulations;
  • It was developed and institutionalized the public campaign titled "Stop corruption", through which is promoted the denouncement of corruption cases to the telephone line "311".  A Code of Ethics for prison officers was designed and adopted;
  • Several informative materials were developed, published and distributed to the prison population.  Fact banners on the requirements and procedures of various topics such as probation, disciplinary procedures, rights and obligations, and commutation of sentences, were placed in common areas of every prison center around the country.
  • Online self-training courses based on two handbooks of UNODC were designed:

·         Handbook for Prison Leaders

·         Handbook for Prison Managers and Policymakers on Women and Imprisonment

Furthermore,Upon request of the Prison System of Panama, UNODC has prepared several Technical Consultative Opinions on the following issues: corruption in prisons, use of everyday clothing for the prison population, right of participation of the prison population, challenges faced by foreign prisoners, commutation of sentence, intimate visits, among others.

With the support of UNODC, the website of the Prison System of Panama was improved.



Implementing the Prison Reform In Panama


In response to the commitment and willingness of the Panamanian State, UNODC has been implementing the project 'Supporting prison reform in Panama' since October 2010. The project's main objectives are: to develop a comprehensive reform strategy aimed at the humanization of prison conditions and the professionalization of prison staff; and to contribute to the achievement of Panama's goal of having a modern, effective and efficient prison service in line with international standards.

This video highlights the achievements made by the Panamanian Prison System through the technical and financial support of this project implemented by the UNODC Regional Office for Central America and the Caribbean in Panama (UNODC ROPAN).

The SECOPA project, aligned with the main pillars of the Strategy for Citizen Security of the Government of Panama, and funded by the European Union, aims to strengthen the security and justice sectors in Panama, through close collaboration and cooperation between, UNODC, the Inter-American Development Bank (IABD), and the Government of Panama.

SECOPA will be implemented by both UNODC and the IADB. UNODC's components of the project include:

(I)    Strengthening statistics and the quality of analysis through the creation of a Center of Excellence in Analysis of Trends in Drugs and Crime

(II)    Establishment of a Technological Platform for Information and Intelligence Sharing

(III)    Strengthening the Capacity of Public Ministry

(IV)    Prison Reform

Prison Reform Component:

The objective of the prison reform component is the qualitative improvement of the Prison Training Academy curriculum, as well as the strengthening and modernization of the General Directorate of the Prison System of the Ministry of Government of Panama, in order to compliance with their institutional goals and to enhance the social reintegration addressed to adult people deprived of liberty.

Strategic areas of intervention:

The component aims to strengthen the penal institutional framework as a fundamental premise for the achievement of the objectives of the prison system in line with international standards in human rights and criminal justice, considering two strategic areas of intervention:

( 1) Strengthen the institutional framework of the Directorate General of Prisons to effectively and efficiently implement policies aimed at the rehabilitation of people who have committed a criminal offense.

(2) Strengthen the Prison Training Academy to ensure specialized training for staff members serving in different areas of the prison system.

Major achievements:

  • Strategic plan for the Directorate General of Prisons (DGSP, for its acronym in Spanish) was delivered and validated by the national authorities.
  • Draft bill for the establishment of a prison officer career was delivered and validated by the national authorities, and is in the process of being submitted to the Legislative Assembly.
  • Institutional and functional diagnosis of the DGSP and its restructuring proposal was delivered and validated by the national authorities.
  • Diagnosis of the existing reintegration programs was delivered and validated by the national authorities.
  • Proposal for the organizational and functional restructuring of the Prison Training Academy (AFP, for its acronym in Spanish) was delivered and validated by the national authorities.
  • The project funded a study visit to El Salvador to exchange best practices in the implementation of the Correctional Information System of that country (SIPE, according to its acronym in Spanish), resulting in an agreement between the two countries on the transfer of the system to the Prison System of Panama, as a donation. The implementation and startup of the Information System in Panama (SIP) is in process.
  • The Prison Academy increased its training capacity and management skills of prison staff, which is reflected in the following figures (last update: 30 September 2015):
    • The AFP has trained 1238 officers since the beginning of the project.
    • 2014: 353 in the first semester and 339 in the second semester.
    • 2015: 245 in the first semester and 301 in the second semester
    • From this total, 508 officers have been trained through the direct intervention of SECOPA.
    • Development of the e-learning platform within the prison system web page, and in process of being activated.
    • Technical assistance in the preparation of the campaign "Unite to end violence against women in custody".   For more information of the campaign, please click here.



Implementing Prison Reform in Panama

The objective of the project is to develop an overall prison reform strategy that will address prison overcrowding, the large population of remanded prisoners, and the resulting human rights violations.

The specific objectives of the project are :

1. Developing a strategic plan for prison reform in Panama

2. Building capacity in the prison service

These objectives are to be achieved through the development of a strategic plan for prison reform in Panama and building capacity in the Prison Service.

PANX12 is carried out in accordance with the plan of action defined by the Panamanian Government that has been elaborated based on the four areas targeted for reform: infrastructure, personnel, security, and rehabilitation programs. Through PANX12, UNODC ROPAN provides direct technical and expert advice and financial support to the Ministry of the Government and the Penitentiary System so as to assist and support the Government in the implementation of the various reforms.

A roadmap for the implementation of prison reform in Panama (also known as the plan "For a second opportunity") has also been created, agreed to and approved by the Ministry of Government, and 70% has so far been implemented. To date the project has been able to assist the Panamanian Government in achieving a range of positive results in the process of prison reform. Despite an increased penitentiary population, the population density has been decreased as a result of various measures implemented by the government with the support of UNODC ROPAN.

The Panamanian Government continues to make various strides in this area and has forecasted a prison construction project will see the construction of new prisons in Panama City and Chiriquí with capacities of 5500 and 1000 respectively. This increase in penitentiary capacity will allow for further deduction in the population density within Panama's prisons. During this process of construction, UNODC will lend technical and advisory support to the Panamanian Government in a joint effort to ensure that the new facilities fall in line with international standards and norms for penitentiaries. Further results that have contributed to the reduction in penitentiary density include the following:

ü The number of persons to whom probation has been granted by the Executive has doubled. 628 persons received probation in 2010, and 1100 were given in 2012.

ü The number of prisoners who redeem penalty by work and study has been increased: 638 people in 2010, 718 in 2011, and 282 by April 2012.

ü 42% of the prison population is classified and therefore, granted access to prison privileges.

ü 10 of 15 prisons have integrated Technical Boards, and the remaining 5 prisons are currently in the integration process.

ü Additional space for 1500 prisoners, that meets international standards, has been inaugurated.

ü Greater coordination between the Penitentiary System, Judiciary and Prosecutors has been achieved.

Recognizing the important role played by penitentiary staff in ensuring security and managing the prisons on a daily basis, the Government has diligently pursued the simultaneous training of personnel within the prison system. Personnel have become active in knowledge networks and peer support forums on prison reform, and a number of programmes that support a reduction in the prison populations have been implemented. In an effort to consolidate the strengthening and increasing of the staff capacity within the penitentiary system, the Panamanian Government also pursued the reopening of the penitentiary Academy which took place in January 2011. The reopening of the Academy was significant in the process of Panamanian prison reform.

ü The Penitentiary Academy can boast norms and an updated curriculum, equipment, furniture and bibliography that allow for the training of 260 students simultaneously by highly motivated trainers.

ü After meeting admission requirements and passing the final proficiency test, 490 prison officers, who were trained for three months, have graduated from the Academy since February 2011, and have already been assigned to roles in various prisons throughout the country replacing the national police in those roles.

ü 1138 prison officials have expanded their knowledge and skills through several trainings on prisons matters: 740 in 2011 and 398 in 2012. This constitutes 61% in 2011 and 35% in 2012 of the total staff in the Penitentiary System.

ü About 35 trainers have been trained through one or more study visits and training courses, and they have in turn trained, 1188 prison officers as a follow up to their experiences. Some of them have been trained more than once.

ü 600 prison officers have received a kit of prison training materials (For example: compendium of prison norms, prison handbooks, etc). Training courses for penitentiary officers on Security and Rehabilitation (AVIR in Spanish), includes 300 hours of mandatory reading and 30 hours of courses which allow for the updating of knowledge.

ü Training and "Training of Trainers" is provided by UNODC ROPAN, using modules which have been developed specifically for Panama.

As a result of the range of workshops, mentorships and study visits in which all prison managers and department heads of the Penitentiary System of Panama have participated, it can be noted that:

ü 100% of prison managers have increased their management and leadership skills within the context of international standards.

ü 50 prison officials participated in 10 day study visits to the Dominican Republic (New Management Model Prison). Each participant obtained a performance certificate and submitted a work plan was elaborated and submitted authorities upon their return and subsequently put in to practice.

ü There has been an increase in the number of detainees involved in rehabilitation programs.

ü Increased number of family visits (visits with children), 2 to 4 times a year, and intimate visits including women prisoners are promoted.

ü 90% of the prisons have a regimental schedule supported by a daily schedule of activities.

ü Two posters, one for the campaign to prevent Corruption and the other for the campaign 'Give a Book to Jail' to collect books for prisons, were prepared and printed to be placed in several offices of the Penitentiary System. 5.768 books were collected to equip libraries in prisons in the framework of the Public Campaign that began in March 2012.

ü 100% of prisons are implementing the best practices learned during the study visits as well as the best practices of national prison centres which were exchanged at the workshops held around the country.

ü Seven prisons have special care programmes for detainees with additions to drugs, sex offenders and social skills development, which will be progressively replicated throughout the country.

ü The project has also provided support in the elaboration of a draft Code of Ethics for penitentiary officers based on the document prepared by the Council of Europe.

Six consultancies have also been conducted to assess the main issues of concern to the Ministry of Government such as health, alternatives to imprisonment, design of the organizational structure, operational plan and the curriculum of the Penitentiary Academy, elaboration of the Data Management System, among others. In addition, a Grant Agreement with the Latin American Institute of the United Nations for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (ILANUD according to its acronym in Spanish), has been executed during the first phase to develop a comprehensive plan for penitentiary training.

It is important to mention that activities under the project are conducted in coordination with ILANUD and the Centre of Excellence on Prison Reform and Drug Demand Reduction in the Dominican Republic. Through this programme, ROPAN also works closely with other UN agencies, the OAS, NGOs and independent experts. Furthermore, various activities are coordinated with yet another ROPAN initiative, " Increasing the Capacity for Prison Reform through Alternatives to Imprisonment", which focuses on the Telematic Tracking System using the electronic monitoring bracelet .

Every activity undertaken by the programme is subject to a detailed report, and surveys have been designed to allow the parties involved to measure the impact and utility of the particular activity, as well as to determine the aspects that must be logistically improved. After each study visit, a meeting to share experiences is held, and reports/consultations are presented in a workshop attended by all stakeholders. In addition, activity reports are sent to donors on a monthly basis.


The general objective of the second phase of this project, which was initiated in July 2012, is to continue the prison reform strategy initiated by Panamanian authorities, who will seek humanization of prison conditions and professionalization of prison staff.

While maintaining the same methodological approach, the second phase of the project will focus on the following three specific objectives:

  1. Provide support to the operation of the Prison Training Academy.

a) Acquisition of technological equipment, furniture and library materials that will contribute to staff training.

b) Training teachers in the Penitentiary Academy.

c) Create and implement an evaluation and performance system.

d) Increased participation in study and training courses both nationally and internationally.

  1. Improving confinement conditions of women deprived from liberty.

a. Design of a programme for women deprived of liberty to allow them greater opportunities to seek social reintegration while taking gender particularities into account

b. Design of protocols and regulations for women's prisons that address the specifics of the female prison population.

c. Training of staff in the use of these protocols and regulations to ensure enhanced gender awareness.

  1. Strengthen the educational, labour and production activities of persons deprived of liberty

a. Diagnosis of the current situation in education, employment and production matters in prisons.

b. Proposal of operational and functional restructuring of the Directorate of the Penitentiary System for a better implementation of educational, employment and training programmes.

c. Proposal for education, work and training programs for persons deprived of liberty.