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East and South East Asia plays a key role in the global production, transport and consumption of illicit goods and services. Indonesia's border weaknesses exacerbate the country's vulnerability to trafficking of persons, drugs and natural resources, as well as smuggling of migrants. Indonesia is a major source country for trafficking in persons. Indonesia is also a major zone for smuggling of migrants, often en route to Australia.
Trafficking in illegal forestry products, and in particular illegal logging, is a major challenge. Indonesia is home to extensive tropical rainforests and diverse flora and fauna. The Indonesian Ministry of Forestry estimates that in recent years Indonesia has lost 1.6-2.8 million hectares annually to illegal logging and land conversion. These losses are due primarily to ineffective management and law enforcement.  Indonesia's "undocumented" forestry output results in an economic loss to the Indonesian people of around US $3 billion per year.  Because the Indonesians who live in these rural areas are often the poorest and most vulnerable, they bear the brunt of the consequences of these criminal activities.
Indonesia was formally a transit country for drugs, with much of its supply coming from Europe and other parts of Asia. During the last five years, the domestic manufacture of amphetamine-type stimulants has increased to meet the growing demand for crystalline methamphetamine and ecstasy (MDMA). Locally produced amphetamine-type stimulants is also trafficked internationally, at a rate that prompts concerns that Indonesia will soon rival Europe as a provider for the world's MDMA consumption.
The Government has steadily increased the capacity of its institutional actors and agencies, including the training of special units to combat transnational organized crime and trafficking, and has successfully prosecuted and convicted individuals for such offences. Despite this progress, serious transnational organized crime and trafficking threats continue to confront Indonesia. Capacity of institutions and officials can be insufficient to deal with the threats of transnational organized crime. Other institutions, such as the judiciary and the Attorney General's Office have similar capacity and resource constraints.
UNODC Indonesia, in close partnership with the Government of Indonesia and the Jakarta Centre for Law Enforcement Cooperation are working to strengthen the justice system. UNODC will focus on supporting Indonesia to ratify the international conventions and instruments, implement domestic legislation and improve the capacity of the relevant law enforcement authorities to strengthen their capacity to investigate, prosecute and process complex serious crimes. UNODC will provide technical assistance, research and policy advice as well as training in response to partner needs.
 Lutfia, Ismira, Indonesia , East Timor call for Regional Forum to Address People Smuggling, Trafficking, Jakarta Globe (4 March 2011).
 Power point presentation by Department of Forests, Indonesia during USDOJ organized training on "Combating illegal logging and illegal timber trade in Indonesia," Aug 11-13, 2008 Jakarta.
 Sustaining Indonesian Forests, pp. 8-9.
Support to improved security by provision of capacity building to the Jakarta Centre for Law Enforcement Cooperation (Funded by the European Union)
The Jakarta Centre for Law Enforcement and Cooperation (JCLEC) is the lead training institute in Indonesia on transnational crime issues and is already an established training provider to these agencies. Accordingly, JCLEC is the ideal conduit through which the UNODC and its implementing partners and associate will implement a customized, high quality training and staff development programme that will not only strengthen JCLEC's own capacity but also that of law enforcement agencies responsible for managing transnational crime in Indonesia.
Countering Illegal Logging and the linkage between Forest Crime and Corruption in Indonesia (Funded by the Norwegian Government)
This is a project to counter illegal logging and the illicit trade in forest products in Indonesia by strengthening the country's law enforcement and anti corruption capacities. More specifically the project seeks to strengthen the Special Responsive Police Forest Task Force (SPORC), improve the capacity of prosecutors and judges, and support civil society's response to illegal logging and corruption.
The project also seeks to counter the enabling environment that corruption provides to illegal logging in Indonesia by strengthening the capacity of Indonesia's anti-corruption agencies and law officials to investigate, prosecute and adjudicate corruption cases linked to forest crimes. Use of the anti money laundering regime to target the kingpins behind forest crimes will be a key output. Papua province is the primary location of this project.
Towards Asia Just
The "Towards Asia Just" Programme aims to provide a regional framework to implement the rule of law in Asia and the Pacific by supporting the attainment of judicial independence and integrity as well as the capacity to respond efficiently to transnational organized crime by means of a transnational organized justice scheme.
Smuggling of Migrants: Establishment and Operation of a Coordination and Analysis Unit (CAU) for East Asia and the Pacific
This Project will establish and operate a Coordination and Analysis Unit (CAU), which will include a regional database in order to coordinate, generate, manage, analyze, report and use migrant smuggling information to ensure that smuggling of migrants activities are identified and acted upon through targeted operational responses.
Migrant smuggling information will be contributed to a regional database utilized by the CAU in order to produce detailed situation assessments, develop strategic migrant smuggling information and propose evidence-based intervention for partners and Member States.
REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS
United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
The Bali Process
The Royal Government of Norway
Indonesian National Police
Attorney General's Office
Ministry of Forestry Indonesia
Corruption Eradication Commission
Financial Transaction Report Analysis Centre
Pacific Island Forum Secretariat
International Association of Prosecutors
Jakarta Centre for Law Enforcement Cooperation
Partnership for Governance Reform
National Policing Improvement Agency
Charles Sturt University