Species of Fungi isolated from Samples of Opium from Ten Different Regions

Sections

Introduction
Materials and method
TABLE I: Origin and year of crop of opium samples in our possession
Species of fungi isolated from samples of opium of ten different regions
TABLE II Species of fungi isolated from opium of various regions
Conclusion

Details

Author: Hikmet ELTUTAR, Chemist, Mustafa IGNECILER
Pages: 35 to 36
Creation Date: 1963/01/01

Species of Fungi isolated from Samples of Opium from Ten Different Regions

Dr Hikmet ELTUTAR, Chemist
Dr Mustafa IGNECILER
Agricultural Engineer, Soil Products Office, Opium Section Directorate, Besiktas-Istanbul.

Introduction

In parallel with researches carried out by ourselves on species of fungi observed on Turkish opium, their action on the quality of the product and their removal with various fungicides, published in the United Nations Bulletin on Narcotics, Vol. X, No. 4, Mr. Takashi Matsushima and Mr. Haruyo Asahina have been conducting research on the same subject in the National Health Laboratory in Tokyo, Japan.

Our experiments were performed on raw opium of different origins; the Japanese scientists carried out their researches on manipulated opium of the export type, including samples from various districts in Turkey.

Although the materials used by us were somewhat different from theirs, our attention was drawn to the discrepancy in the results. In order to investigate the differences thus observed, we took the works of the valued Japanese scientists into consideration and thought it useful to carry out our researches in media used on both sides and make comparisons.

All our tests were carried out under the supervision of Dr. Ibrahim Karaca, Docent of the Chair of Plant Protection of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University.

Materials and method

A. Materials

The opium used in our tests was from different districts of Turkey and was supplied by the Soil Products Office.

Samples of 5 gr each were drawn from the mouldy part of opium from the above regions and placed in clean containers, the lids of which were sealed with paraffin.

Through the courtesy of Mr. Takashi Marsuhima and Mr. Haruyo Asahina we obtained some culture of Oospora Species.

TABLE I: Origin and year of crop of opium samples in our possession

Origin

Crop

Erbaa
1953
Yalvac
1953
Bolvadin
1953
Emet
1953
Zile
1953
Tavsanli
1953
Civril
1953
Bozkir
1953
Amasya
1953
Sarkikaraagac
1953

B. Method

Media used for reproduction of fungi were Czapek-Agar and Malt-Agar, the latter containing 4.5 % NaCl.

After careful preparation of the media, Czapek was placed in one of the two sets of Petri dishes, and Malt-Agar was placed in the other set, then fungi from opium samples of different regions were inoculated on each one.

The Petri dishes containing Czapek medium were left at room temperature, whilst Malt-Agar media were kept at a temperature of 26° C.

Species of fungi isolated from samples of opium of ten different regions

Species of fungi which appeared on the fifth day in Czapek-Agar medium and on the eighth day in Malt-Agar were identified using the Thom and Raper method (1945) and found to belong to the three groups of Aspergillus discussed in table II.

On examination of table II it will be noticed that the same species were recorded in both media. It was observed, however, that these species grew more abun-

TABLE II Species of fungi isolated from opium of various regions

Species of Fungis

Origin

Medium

Aspergillus wentii Wehmer
Erbaa
Czapek
Aspergillus wentii Wehmer
Yalvac
Czapek
Aspergillus wentii Wehmer
Bolvadin
Czapek
Aspergillus wentii Wehmer
Emet
Czapek
Aspergillus wentii Wehmer
Tavsanli
Czapek
Aspergillus niger van Tieghem
Civril
Czapek
Aspergillus versicolor (vuill.) Tiraboschi
Bozkir
Czapek
Aspergillus niger van Tieghem
Amasya
Czapek
Aspergillus wentii Wehmer
S. Karaagac
Czapek
Aspergillus wentii Wehmer
Erbaa
Malt-Agar
Aspergillus wentii Wehmer
Yalvac
Malt-Agar
Aspergillus wentii Wehmer
Bolvadin
Malt-Agar
Aspergillus wentii Wehmer
Emet
Malt-Agar
Aspergillus wentii Wehmer
Tavsanli
Malt-Agar
Aspergillus niger van Tieghem
Civril
Malt-Agar
Aspergillus versicolor (vuill.) Tibaboschi
Bozkir
Malt-Agar
Aspergillus niger van Tieghem
Amasya
Malt-Agar
Aspergillus wentii Wehmer
S. Karaagac
Malt-Agar

dantly and rapidly in Czapek medium, whereas growth was poorer and slower in Malt-Agar.

T. Matsuhima & H. Asahina have achieved isolation

  1. of another fungus from opium imported into Japan from Turkey: the Oospora sp. But although we applied the same method to opium of ten different origins no fungus of the Oospora species was recorded.

Although opium samples used by the above scientists in their researches were of the same origins as some of ours, the crop years were different.

Moreover, we were not able to carry out our tests on material from as many different regions as that which was used by the Japanese scientists. They used manipulated opium of widely varied origins.

Should researches be continued, taking into consideration the above two factors (year of crop and variety of material), it would be possible to throw light on the question of where the opium exported from Turkey may have been attacked by Oospora sp.

Conclusion

  1. Three species of fungi have been isolated from samples of opium from ten different regions: these species are as follows: Aspergillus niger van Tieghem; Aspergillus wentii Wehmer; Aspergillus versicolor (vuill.) Tiraboschi.

  2. No Oospora sp. was recorded on the above ten samples.

REFERENCES

Th. CHARLES and Raper KENNETH B., A Manual of the Aspergilli , The Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1945, 373 pp.

Takashi MATSUHIMA, Haruyo ASAHINA, Oospora Sp. isolated from moldy opium, The Journal of Japanese Botany, Vol. 33:2 1958 (February), pp. 24-27