Drug use among college students - an interim report

Sections

Abstract
Introduction
Method
Results
TABLE 3 B - Pattern of drug use (females)
Discussion
TABLE 8B Opinion Chart (Results)
Conclusions

Details

Author: K. C. DUBE, Aditya KUMAR, Narendaer KUMAR, S. P. GUPTA
Pages: 47 to 61
Creation Date: 1977/01/01

Drug use among college students - an interim report

Dr. , M.B., B.S., F.R.C. Psych., D.P.M., F.A.P.A., F.A.M.S. K. C. DUBE
In charge of Research Unit, Mental Hospital, Agra. Formerly Professor of Psychiatry, S.N. Medical College, Agra and Medical Superintendent, Mental Hospital, Agra,M.A., D.M. and S.P., D.R.M., Clinical Psychologist Aditya KUMAR
M.Sc., Statistician Narendaer KUMAR
M.S.W., LL.B., D.R.M., Social worker S. P. GUPTA
Senior Research Officers, International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia, Mental Hospital, Agra

Abstract

A survey was conducted at Agra (India) to study the extent and pattern of the non-medical use of dependence producing drugs among the post-graduate students of the local colleges and a number ofmedical students of other colleges of the state of Uttar Pradesh who were posted for training at the Mental Hospital. The study was confined to the academic year 1975-76 and covered 1,200 students. The present interim report is based on a sample of 564 students covered during 1975 (1st stage). The data on the total sample of 1200 (2nd and the final stage) are still being analysed.

The results reveal that 73.88 per cent male, and 25.96 per cent female students had a drug experience at some time or another. Drug use was highest (80.66 per cent) among male medical students. The substances commonly used by males were: alcohol, barbiturates, Mandrax (methaqualone diphenhydramine hydrochloride), Vesparax (hydroxyzine hydrochloride), Equanil (meprobamate), Librium (chlordiazepoxide), pain killers (minor analgesics such as aspirin, and cannabis (bhang, ganja, and charas). The female students mainly used Equanil and pain killers. Among the 23 reasons offered for the use of drugs, the majority of students (50-59 per cent) stated that their main reason for drug use was "to relieve tension and facilitate relaxation".The next motivating factor for indulgence was "for the sake of fun" (30-39 per cent). The student drug users reported a number of effects produced by various substances. The most commonly mentioned effects were: excessive sleepiness, sluggishness, giddiness, inability to concentrate on studies, poor physical co-ordination. They expressed their opinion on various aspects of the drug use problem and favoured stringent measures to curb it.

Introduction

Drug use among the adolescents has become a global phenomenon. In India the use of some drugs, which at one time was frowned upon by the social elite and considered a denigrated habit prevalent mainly among the illiterates and persons from lower socio-economic background, and of other pharmacological agents the use of which was not known, has now spread to the precincts of educational institutions. The spread of the drug cult in schools and colleges is of very recent origin. No proper statistics are available, yet reports by lay journalists have been appearing in the press with such frequency and those in contact with youth are so conversant with the phenomenon, that it is impossible to ignore the fact that the problem exists. The Government and the public are quite seized by the problem and investigations are already afoot. This background prompted the study to be undertaken.

The comprehensive questionnaire (2), suitably modified for use in the present study, contained the following sections: (i) Bio-socio-demographic information; (ii) Drugs and patterns of use; (iii) Statements of opinion; (iv) Subjective experience information; (v) Drug and family information; (vi) Reasons for drug use; (vii) Remarks.

The subjects were post-graduate students of the faculties of arts, sciences and commerce of Agra colleges and final year students from a number of medical colleges posted for training at Agra. Post-graduate and final year undergraduate medical students were selected as it was thought that by then they would have had maximum exposure to drugs, had they chosen to use them; besides, by this time their views on it would have been crystallized. The study carried out over a period of one year will, once completed, eventually cover about 1,200 students.

Method

The questionnaire was administered to the whole class in a class room situation for which prior arrangements were made with the teachers but the students had no advance information of any kind at all. After the investigators were introduced by the teacher, one of them explained the purpose at length and instructed the students on how to fill in the questionnaire. Students were given the opportunity of having points clarified that presented difficulties. Complete anonymity was assured and the students were asked to check whether they had completed the questionnaire before returning it.

This method of administration of the questionnaire was adopted in order to ( a) avoid wilful absence from the class specially by drug takers who otherwise might have kept it; ( b) deny students the opportunity for prior mutual consultations which might have influenced their own responses; and ( c) avoid that students came prepared to answer the questionnaire in a certain manner, in order to minimize false positive and false negative responses. All investigators had a long experience in administering such types of questionnaires, and in the present case their observation was that the students took the task seriously. The items of information in the questionnaire provided for a cross check of answers, which, when done later, revealed that incongruous responses were negligible.

Results

A percentage of male (73.88) and female (25.96) students ( P < 0.001) were found to have had an experience with drugs. The combined percentage of drug users for both sexes was 56.21 per cent. Drug use was significantly more widespread ( P < 0.01) amongst male medical students with 80.66 per cent of drug users in comparison to non-medical male students among whom there were 66.85 per cent of users. No significant difference was observed among female medical and non-medical students. The specific percentage of students using drugs from "once a week" to "daily" was 10.39 for males and 1.92 for females. A percentage of males (44.33) and of females (5.29) were "moderate users", while 49.16 per cent of males and 18.75 per cent of females were "occasional users" (table 1).

TABLE I - Frequency of drug use by sex and faculty

   

Male

Female

Total

Users

 

Medical

Non-medical

Total

Medical

Non-medical

Total

Medical

Non-medical

Total

Number of students surveyed
  181 175 356 67 141 208 248 316 564
Regular users (once a week to daily)
Number 21 16 37 3 1 4 24 17 41
  Percentage 11.60 9.14 10.39 4.48 0.71 1.92 9.68 5.38 7.27
Moderate users (less frequent than once a week to once a month)
Number 29 22 51 4 7 11 33 29 62
  Percentage 16.02 12.57 14.33 5.97 4.96 5.29 13.30 9.18 10.99
Occasional users (less frequent than once a month)
Number 96 79 175 9 30 39 105 109 214
  Percentage 53.04 45.14 49.16 13.43 21.28 18.75 42.34 34.49 37.94
Total users
  146 117 263 16 38 54 162 155 317
    80.66 66.85 73.88 23.88 26.95 25.96 65.32 49.05 56.21

TABLE 2 - Single and multiple drug users

   

Males

Females

Users
 
Medical
Non-medical
Total
Medical
Non- medical
Total
Single drug users
Number
55 43 98 6 30 36
 
Percentage
37.67 36.75 37.26 37.50 78.95 66.67
Multiple drug users
Number
91 74 165 10 8 18
 
Percentage
62.33 63.25 62.74 62.50 21.05 33.33
Total users
Number
146 117 263 16 38 54
 
Percentage
100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Male, Female = P <0.01

TABLE 3A - Pattern of drug use (males)

 

Medical (N=181)

Non-Medical (N=175)

Total (N=356)

Drug

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Alcohol a
102 56.35 78 44.57 180 50.56
Barbiturates b
39 21.55
-
-
39 10.96
Mandrax (methaqualone, diphenhydramine Hcl) b
47 25.97 15 8.57 62 17.42
Melleril (thioridazine)
5 2.76 1 0.57 6 1.69
Vesparaxb (hydroxyzine hydrochloride)
29 16.02 4 2.29 33 9.27
Paraldelyde
2 1.10
-
-
2 0.56
Dexadrin (dexamphetamine)
4 2.21
-
-
4 1.12
Other hypnotics and sedatives b, c
11 6.08 1 0.57 12 3.37
Bhang-Cannabis
65 35.91 51 29.14 116 32.58
Ganja b-Cannabis
15 3.29 3 1.71 18 5.06
Charas b-Cannabis
26 14.36 8 4.57 34 9.55
L.S.D
3 1.66 2 1.14 5 1.40
Heroin
3 1.66
-
-
3 0.84
Opiuma
12 6.63 2 1.14 14 3.93
Cocaine
2 1.10 2 1.14 4 1.12
Equanil (meprobamate) b
42 23.20 8 4.57 50 14.04
Librium (chlordiazepoxide) b
32 17.68 5 2.86 37 10.39
Calmpose (diazepam)
7 3.87 2 1.14 9 2.53
Others tranquillizers a, d
11 6.08 2 1.14 13 3.65
Pain killers
42 23.20 40 22.86 82 23.03
             

aP<0.5 between medical and non-medical students

bP<0.1 between medical and non-medical students

c Other hypnotics and sedatives: Doriden (glutethimide); Melsedin (methaqualone); Restyl (methaqualone, diphenhydramine); Paldoma (methaqualone, diphenhydramine); Sapual; Hypnotex.

d Other tranquillizers: Various phenothiazine drugs like triflupromazine hydrochloride, chlorpromazine, perchlorpromazine.

The term pain killers has been used for minor analgesics such as Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid), Paracetamol and similar substances.

TABLE 3 B - Pattern of drug use (females)

 

Medical (N=67)

Non-Medical (N=141)

Total (N=208)

Drug

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Alcohol
3 4.48 1 0.71 4 1.92
Barbiturates
2 2.99 1 0.71 3 1.44
Mandrax
2 2.99 3 2.13 5 2.40
Melleril
1
-
-
-
-
-
Vesparax
1 1.49 1 0.71 2 0.96
Paraldehyde
-
-
-
-
-
-
Dexadrin
1 1.49
-
-
1 0.48
Other hypnotics and sedatives a
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bhang
-
-
2 1.42 2 0.96
Ganja
-
-
-
-
-
-
Charas
1 1.49
-
-
1 0.48
L.S.D
-
-
3 2.13 3 1.44
Heroin
-
-
-
-
-
-
Opium
-
-
-
-
-
-
Cocaine
-
-
-
-
-
-
Equanil
7 10.45 9 6.38 16 7.69
Librium
2 2.99 1 0.71 3 1.44
Calmpose
-
-
-
-
-
-
Other tranquillizers b
-
-
-
-
-
-
Pain killers c
11 16.42 24 17.00 35 16.83

a Other hypnotics and sedatives: Doriden (glutethimide); Melsedin (methaqualone); Restyl (methaqualone, diphenhydramine); Paldoma (methaqualone, diphenhydramine); Sapual; Hypnotex.

b Other tranquillizers: Various phenothiazine drugs like triflupromazine hydrochloride, chlorpromazine, perchlorpromazine.

cThe term pain killers has been used for minor analgesics such as Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid), Paracetamol and similar substances.

The breakdown by "single" and "multiple" drug use shows that poly-drug use was hgh in medical and non-medical males and medical females, while it was low in non-medical females (table2). The number of male users is about five times that of females. The proportion of multiple drug users amongst males is nearly twice that of single drug users, while in females the use is in the reverse order. The reasons for this could be multiple - such as less access to drugs, lesser prevalence of drug use, less opportunity and freedom to form drug user groups and lesser freedom to have late evenings out in the case of female students.

The most commonly used substances by both, medical and non medical male students were: alcohol, bhang, and pain killers. Male medical students in addition also used barbiturates, Mandrax, Vesparax, Equanil, Librium, charas and ganja in substantial quantity. There were significant differences in the use of certain drugs by medical and non-medical males, as shown in table 3A. Amongst female medical students the use of Equanil and pain killers and amongst the non-medical females the use of pain killers was substantial (table 3B).

Table 4 gives a detailed breakdown of the frequency at which various substances were used. For most substances which include alcohol, hypnotics, cannabis, tranquillizers and pain killers, about 10 per cent of the users of thesecategories, taken separately, used them from "about once a week" to "daily". Substances not in frequent use were Melleril, paraldehyde, L.S.D., heroin, cocaine and Calmpose.

Most users of minor tranquillizers and pain killers started the use primarily at the suggestion of their physician. In case of L.S.D., heroin, opium and cocaine, most users decided on their own to use drugs, while in case of the rest of the substances the maximum number of users were influenced by their campus friends (table 5).

Table 5 - Persons primarily suggesting drug use

Drug

Self 2

Physician 3

Parents 4

Brothers or sisters 5

Campus friends

Off campus friends

Others 8

Total (N=564)

Alcohol
54 10 5 13 72 20 10 184
  (29.35) (5.43) (2.72) (7.07) (39.13) (10.87) (5.43)  
Barbiturates
14 9     17 1 1 42
  (33.33) (21.43)     (40.48) (2.38) (2.38)  
Melleril
1     1 4     6
  (16.67)     (16.67) (66.66)      
Mandrax
19 4   2 38 3 1 67
  (28.36) (5.97)   (2.99) (56.72) (4.48) (1.49)  
Vesparax
12 2   2 18 1   35
  (34.29) (5.71)   (5.71) (51.43) (2.86)    
Paraldehyde
1       1     2
  (50.00)       (50.00)      
Others
7 1   1 7 1   17
  (41.18) (5.88)   (5.88) (41.18) (5.88)    
Bhang
42   4 5 50 12 5 118
  (35.59)   (3.39) (4.24) (42.37) (10.17) (4.24)  
Ganja
5       12 1   18
  (27.78)       (66.67) (5.55)    
Charas
8       25 2   35
  (22.86)       (71.43) (5.71)    
L.S.D
4 1     2 1   8
  (50.00) (12.50)     (25.00) (12.50)    
Heroin
3             3
  (100.00)              
Opium
6 1     5   2 14
  (42.86) (7.14)     (35.71)   (14.29)  
Cocaine
3 1           4
  (75.00) (25.00)            
Pain killers
28 73 8 1 4   3 117
  (23.93) (62.39) (6.84) (0.85) (3.42)   (2.56)  
Equanil
30 25 3   6   2 66
  (45.45) (37.88) (4.54)   (9.09)   (3.03)  
Librium
14 21     5     40
  (35.00) (52.50)     (12.50)      
Others
11 5     6     22
  (50.00) (22.73)     (27.27)      

TABLE 6 - Subjective reasons for drug use given in rank order: Persentage of subjects reproting the reasons

Percentage

Users

Non-users

50-59
1. Relieve tensions, facilitate relaxation.
1. Relieve tensions, facilitate relaxation.
40-49
-
-
30-39
2. For the sake of fun.
2. Feel good and high.
20-29
3. Feel good and high.
3. For the sake of fun.
 
4. Satisfy curiosity.
4. Social reasons.
 
5. Ease depression.
5. Ease depression.
 
6. To be accepted by the group.
6. Satisfy curiosity.
10-19
7. For kicks.
7.5 Improve studying.
 
8. Forced or persuaded by others.
7.5 Heighten sexual experience.
 
9. To impress others.
9. To be accepted by the
 
10. Heighten sexual
group.
 
experience.
10. Forced or persuaded by
 
11. Social reasons.
others.
   
11. To impress others.
 
12. Improve studying.
12. For kicks.
 
13. Facilitate social experience.
13. To challenge values of society.
 
14. To imitate others.
14. Intensify perceptions, increase aesthetic awareness.
   
15. Sign of leadership.
   
16. To imitate others.
   
17. Rapid resolution of personal problems.
   
18.5 Sharpen religious insight.
   
18.5 Stay awake.
   
20. To show revolt against authority.
   
21. Facilitate social experience.
   
22. Deepen self understanding.
1-9
15.5 Intensify perceptions.
23. Others.
 
15.5 To challenge values of society.
 
 
18. Sharpen religious insight.
 
 
18. Rapid resolution of personal problems.
 
 
18. Sign of leadership.
 
 
20. To show revolt against authority.
 
 
21. Deepen self understanding.
 
 
22.
Stay awake.
 
23.
Others.

A high degree of agreement existed between users and non-users on the reasons for drug use (rs=0.89). Between 50 to 59 per cent of the students felt that drugs are taken to relieve tension and facilitate relaxation. All reasons given appear in rank order in table 6. From the rank order, it would seem that the reasons which suggest "a pleasure-seeking motive", take precedence over the reasons seeming to invoke dram-like or perceptual experiences.

None of the drug effects experienced were pleasant except increased sexual desire and feelings of exceptional power. The unpleasant effects reported were: excessive sleepiness, sluggishness, giddiness, inability to concentrate on studies, poor physical co-ordination, depression and distortion of vision etc. (table 7).

The majority of drug users favoured the view that indulgence in alcohol, tranquillizers and pain killers should be left to their own choice. They were evenly divided in their opinion on the use of hypnotics and sedatives, but disagreed about giving liberty of choice to use cannabis, L.S.D., heroin and cocaine. Non-user students favoured liberty of choice only in cases of pain killers, and were evenly divided in the case of alcohol, but were against this liberty for any other substances. Both users and non-users favoured stringent measures to curb drug use. In their opinion, continued heavy use of drugs impairs academic performance and habitual use of cannabis leads to involvement with more potent drugs. They felt that drug users in colleges were generally insecure, immature and confused students (tables 8A and 8B).

Discussion

Drug use in some Western countries has been reported to exist in a serious form [ 1] , [ 2] even among school children. In India no studies have so far been conducted on the prevalence of drug use. The authors believe that there is not much drug use up to the secondary school level, except, to a limited extent in the case of alcohol and cannabis in lower social strata, particularly in villages. The use of cannabis, especially ganja smoking, is quite customary in villages. Elders who indulge in it themselves do not view its use with seriousness, and the children of such parents enjoy considerable freedom to use it. These children in fact grow up in a culture in which ganja smoking and use of bhang is not a real taboo. Amongst females, however, drug use in any form has been practically non-existent [ 3] , [ 4] .

The results of the study indicate that the specific prevalence rate of users was 73.88 per cent for males and 25.96 per cent for females. The increasing use of drugs among female students is perhaps an emerging trend, which is the result of women's lib. seen particularly in affluent social groups and educational institutions with prestige in the larger cities. In comparison, drug use is less frequent in non-medical faculties. Again the type and variety of drugs used also depend on their availability. The medical students have easy access to drugs such as barbiturates, Equanil, Calmpose, etc. which are used for therapeutic purposes. Another recent trend is the use of drugs like L.S.D. which is now obtainable by the medium of a large number of hippies, who have invaded the country. Although only 5 cases of L.S.D. use are reported in this paper, one of the investigators has met with several cases of L.S.D. use in his professional practice.

Various reasons for drug use have been advanced by the students as viewed by them, which seem to be more in the nature of rationalisation to mask their pleasure-gratifying impulses or at least the fantasy in that direction. The other reason is to imitate their Western counterparts thus identifying themselves with the "mods". Drug use also satisfies their ego by getting recognition in their social milieu and by their peers who are more confirmed users and are the trend setters. Curiosity is an important motive in human behaviour and leads to experimentation. Although the students sought to indulge in drug use to relieve tensions and facilitate relaxation, for the sake of fun, to feel good and high, satisfy curiosity, ease depression, to be accepted by the group, for kicks, to impress others, heighten sexual experience, social reasons, improve studying, facilitate social experience, to imitate others and for many other gratifying reasons, their actual experiences were contrary to their expectations. On the other hand they experienced unpleasant effects such as excessive sleepiness, sluggishness, giddiness, inability to concentrate on studies, poor physical co-ordination, depression etc. Therefore it is not surprising that drug users, too, opposed indulgence and favoured measures to counteract and discourage drug use. Once the drug indulgence has started, the subsequent continuance is no more dictated by the reason of expectations given. Since the use continues in spite of unpleasant after-effects, the reasons could be that the after-effects themselves relieve the users of serious responsibilities and the student temporarily becomes oblivious to the demands of reality. In course of time it becomes a trend, and the more drugs are used by the student, the more he develops dependence, to the exclusion of all other activities.

TABLE 7 - The effects that were reported in 20 per cent or more of cases for the drugs with 10 or more users

Percentage

Alcohol

Barbiturate

Mandrax

Vesparax

Bhang

Ganja

Charas

Opium

Equanil

Librium

Pain killer

20-29
7. Feeling of exceptional power 11. Poor physical co-ordination.
8. Depression
2. Excessive sleepiness, slug-gish-ness 8. Depress-ion
11. Poor physical co-ordination 4. Distortion of vision or hearing
4. Distortion of vision or hearing 5. Inab-ility to conc-entrate on studies 6. Hallucin-ations8. De-pres-sion 11. Poor physic-al co- ordin-ation
8. De-pres-sion 11. Poor physic-al co-ordin-ation 15. Diffi-culty in con-trolling impul-ses
5. Inab-ility to conc-entrate on studies 6. Hal-lucin-ations 11. Poor physic-al co- ordin-ation
1. Gid-diness 2. Exces-sive sleep-iness, slug-gish-ness
   
2. Exces-sive sleep-iness, slug-gish-ness
30-39
2. Exces-sive sleepi-ness, slug-gishness 5. Inab-ility to conc-entrate on studies
5. Inab-ility to conc-entrate on studies 11. Poor physic-al co-or- din-ation
 
1. Gid-diness 8. De-pres-sion
2. Exces-sive sleep-iness, slug-gishness
2. Exces-sive sleep-iness, slug-gishness 4. Distor-tion of vision or hearing 5. Inab-
8. De-pres-sion
 
2. Exces-sive sleep-iness, slug-gishness
2. Exces-sive sleep-iness, slug-gishness
 
40-49
1. Gid-diness
1. Gid-diness
1. Gid-diness 5. Inab-ility to conc-entrate on studies 11. Poor physic-al co- ordin-ation
     
1. Giddiness 2. Exces-sive sleep-iness, slug-gish-ness
       
50-59
     
5. Inability to conc-entrate on studies
1. Giddiness
1. Giddiness
         
60-69
   
2. Excessive sleepiness, slug gishness
               
70-79
   
2. Exces-sive sleep-iness, slug-gish-ness
               
80-89
 
2. Excessive sleep-iness, slug-gish-ness.
 
2. Excessive sleep-iness,slug-gish-ness.
             

TABLE 8A Opinion Chart (Observations)

 

User ratings

Non User ratings

Statements

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

Students should be given the liberty to decide for themselves whether or not to use:
                   
1. Alcohol
73 97 18 44 28 74 52 18 114 46
2. Hypnotics and sedatives
39 53 36 64 68 51 38 21 113 81
3. Cannabis
39 32 26 89 75 58 24 14 127 81
4. L.S.D.
43 18 17 110 72 49 27 16 135 77
5. Heroin
41 18 16 106 79 51 24 16 132 81
6. Opium
40 24 20 104 72 52 22 23 133 74
7. Cocaine
44 22 20 93 81 47 29 21 122 85
8. Pain killers
62 75 21 46 56 63 71 24 75 71
9. Tranquillizers
42 89 24 42 63 47 60 23 91 83
10. Drug use should be made legal
69 47 25 75 44 65 34 35 103 67
11. Students indulging in drug intake generally are creative, thoughtful and independent
67 38 43 60 52 42 30 44 110 78
12. Academic performance is impaired by continued heavy drug use
141 26 14 24 55 114 25 30 60 75
13. Drug users in colleges are increasing and will continue to increase
143 33 7 16 61 109 30 22 56 87
14. Habitual use of cannabis leads to use of other potent drugs
103 33 17 13 94 83 28 21 40 132
15. Students should not share drugs with others
128 35 17 27 53 125 18 24 51 87
16. Legal steps should be taken against illicit drug use
106 54 25 31 44 111 28 31 53 74
17. Almost all students in college have tried: Alcohol
65 40 42 64 49 32 36 50 89 97
18. Hypnotics and sedatives
30 42 43 74 71 28 36 49 97 94
19. Cannabis
14 26 47 89 84 20 28 53 103 10
20. L.S.D.
13 24 42 96 85 19 27 55 105 98
21. Heroin
11 32 40 101 76 13 27 55 110 99
22. Opium
15 18 43 95 89 21 24 61 96 102
23. Cocaine
18 19 39 87 97 22 27 56 94 105
24. Pain killers
58 32 34 65 71 33 56 48 74 93
25. Tranquillizers
53 42 34 54 77 31 40 45 79 109
26. There is too much fuss about drug use among college students
98 52 31 31 48 61 50 45 48 100
27. College authorities should lay down a clear policy on drug use including disciplinary action for violation
150 33 16 21 40 136 23 9 46 90
28. Drug users in college are generally insecure, immature and confused students
92 42 29 48 49 113 35 25 44 87

TABLE 8B Opinion Chart (Results)

A = Agree with significantly higher number. D = Disagree with significantly higher number. E = Opinion is evenly divided.

 

User ratings (a,b)

Non-user ratings (b)

Statements

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

Students should be given the liberty to decide for themselves whether or not to use:
                   
1. Alcohol
73 97 18 44 28 74 52 18 114 46
2. Hypnotics and sedatives
39 53 36 64 68 51 38 21 113 81
3. Cannabis
39 32 26 89 75 58 24 14 127 81
4. L.S.D.
43 18 17 110 72 49 27 16 135 77
5. Heroin
41 18 16 106 79 51 24 16 132 81
6. Opium
40 24 20 104 72 52 22 23 133 74
7. Cocaine
44 22 20 93 81 47 29 21 122 85
8. Pain killers
62 75 21 46 56 63 71 24 75 71
9. Tranquillizers
42 89 24 42 63 47 60 23 91 83
10. Drug use should be made legal
69 47 25 75 44 65 34 35 103 67
11. Students indulging in drug intake generally are creative, thoughtful and independent
67 38 43 60 52 42 30 44 110 78
12. Academic performance is impaired by continued heavy drug use
141 26 14 24 55 114 25 30 60 75
13. Drug users in colleges are increasing and will continue to increase
143 33 7 16 61 109 30 22 56 87
14. Habitual use of cannabis leads to use of other potent drugs
103 33 17 13 94 83 28 21 40 132
15. Students should not share drugs with others
128 35 17 27 53 125 18 24 51 87
16. Legal steps should be taken against illicit drug use
106 54 25 31 44 111 28 31 53 74
17. Almost all students in college have tried: Alcohol
65 40 42 64 49 32 36 50 89 97
18. Hypnotics and sedatives
30 42 43 74 71 28 36 49 97 94
19. Cannabis
14 26 47 89 84 20 28 53 103 10
20. L.S.D.
13 24 42 96 85 19 27 55 105 98
21. Heroin
11 32 40 101 76 13 27 55 110 99
22. Opium
15 18 43 95 89 21 24 61 96 102
23. Cocaine
18 19 39 87 97 22 27 56 94 105
24. Pain killers
58 32 34 65 71 33 56 48 74 93
25. Tranquillizers
53 42 34 54 77 31 40 45 79 109
26. There is too much fuss about drug use among college students
98 52 31 31 48 61 50 45 48 100
27. College authorities should lay down a clear policy on drug use including disciplinary action for violation
150 33 16 21 40 136 23 9 46 90
28. Drug users in college are generally insecure, immature and confused students
92 42 29 48 49 113 35 25 44 87

TABLE 8 B (continued)

 

Users

Non-users

Statements

A

D

E

A

D

E

Students should be given the liberty to decide themselves whether or not to use:
           
1.Alcohol
X
       
X
2. Hypnotics and sedatives
   
X
 
X
 
3. Cannabis
 
X
   
X
 
4. L.S.D.
 
X
   
X
 
5. Heroin
 
X
   
X
 
6. Opium
 
X
   
X
 
7. Cocaine
 
X
   
X
 
8. Pain killers
X
   
XX
   
9. Tranquillizers
X
       
X
10. Drug use should be made legal
   
X
 
XX
 
11. Students indulging in drug intake generally are creative, thoughtful and independent
   
X
 
X
 
12. Academic performance is impaired by continued heavy drug use
X
   
X
   
13. Drug users in college are increasing and will continue to increase
X
   
X
   
14. Habitual use of cannabis leads to use of other potent drugs
X
   
X
   
15. Students should not share drugs with others
X
   
X
   
16. Legal steps to be taken against illicit drug use
X
   
X
   
17. Almost all students in college have tried: Alcohol
   
X
 
X
 
18. Hypnotics and sedatives
 
X
   
X
 
19. Cannabis
 
X
   
X
 
20. L.S.D.
 
X
   
X
 
21. Heroin
 
X
   
X
 
22. Opium
 
X
   
X
 
23. Cocaine
 
X
   
X
 
24. Pain killers
   
X
 
XX
 
25. Tranquillizers
   
X
 
X
 
26. There is too much fuss about drug use among college students
X
         
27. College authorities should lay down a clear policy on drug use including disciplinary action for violation
X
   
X
   
28. Drug users in college are generally insecure, immature and confused students
X
   
X
   

X = Significant at P<0.01. X X = Significant at P <0.05.

Conclusions

The survey reveals a high rate of drug use among the students (73.88 per cent in males and 25.96 per cent in females). The highest prevalence was found in male medical students (80.76 per cent) who were also the users of the largest variety of drugs. Drug use in most instances was started at the suggestion of campus friends, upon the individual's own decision and at the suggestion of the physician. The important motives for drug use were: to relieve tension and facilitate relaxation, for the sake of fun, to feel good and high, to satisfy curiosity, to be accepted by the group, and social reasons. In actual fact the after-effects of drug use experienced by the users failed to fulfil these expectations. The drug effects were: excessive sleepiness, sluggishness, giddiness, inability to concentrate on studies, poor physical co-ordination etc. In the opinion poll, those who opposed the use of drugs and favoured stringent action against it were drug users themselves.

000

Users of substances other than pain killers.

1. Agree strongly. 2. Agree with reservations. 3. Tend to disagree. 4. Disagree strongly. 5. Uncertain.

References

001

Jose R. Lombillo and Jack D. Hain. "Patterns of Drug use in a High School Population", Amer. J. Psychiat . 7, 836-841, 1972.

002

K. C. Dube. "Drug Abuse in Northern India - Observations Concerning the Delhi and Agra Regions", Bulletin on Narcotics , XXIV: 1, 49-53, 1972.

003

Edwin S. Robbins, Lillian Robbins, Willium F. Frosch and Marvin Stern. "College Student Drug Use", Amer. J. Psychiat . 12, 1743-1751, 1970.

004

K. C. Dube. "Drug Abuse in Northern India - Observations Concerning the Delhi and Agra Regions", Bulletin on Narcotics , XXIV: 1, 49-53, 1972.

005

K. C. Dube. "Drug Abuse in Northern India - Observations Concerning the Delhi and Agra Regions", Bulletin on Narcotics , XXIV: 1, 49-53, 1972.

006

K. C. Dube. "Drug Abuse in Northern India - Observations Concerning the Delhi and Agra Regions", Bulletin on Narcotics , XXIV: 1, 49-53, 1972.