Drug use among Nigerian university students : prevalence of self-reported use and attitudes to use

Sections

ABSTRACT
Introduction
Setting
Methodology
Results
General, social and demographic characteristics
Knowledge and reported use of drugs
Drug use and age
Social factors affecting drug use
Attitudes to drug use
Discussion

Details

Author: J. J. NEVADOMSKY
Pages: 31 to 42
Creation Date: 1985/01/01

Drug use among Nigerian university students : prevalence of self-reported use and attitudes to use

J. J. NEVADOMSKY Centre for Social, Cultural and Environmental Research (CenSCER), University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

Based on a sample of nearly 300 university students in Benin City, Nigeria, the present study shows that, although a wide range of various drugs are readily available and known, the substances most frequently used by university students are coffee, cola nuts, alcohol, spirits and cigarettes. Diazepam and diazepoxide are also used with some frequency. Students tend to use stimulants and depressants sequentially, mainly during and after sessional examinations. The stimulants keep them alert while they are studying for an examiuation, and the depressants help them to rest after an examination is over. Cannabis is well-known and has been tried by many students.

Introduction

This is the fourth and final report on drug use among students in Bendel State, one of 19 States in the Federation of Nigeria. The first report [ 1] too k a sample of nearly 1,500 secondary school students in four rural and urban areas to determine general patterns of drug use. The second report [ 2] investigated the relationship between the use of drugs among students and academic performance. The third report [ 3] focused on drug use and social factors influencing the use of drugs among 500 secondary school students in two rapidly developing townships. The goals of these studies are to determine the kinds of drugs available to students, and to investigate lifetime use of drugs, frequency of use, and students, attitudes to drug abuse, so as to provide factual information about the extent and patterns of drug taking among secondary school students in a region of Nigeria. The studies complement, and in a few instances supply the baseline data for, several reviews of the literature on the epidemiology of drug use in Nigeria [ 4] , [ 5] and specific studies of drug use in Bendel State [ 6] , [ 7] .

In addition to the above aims, the topic of the present study of drug use among university students arose out of statements made by senior administrative officers of the University of Benin about the rampant abuse of drugs by students [ 8] . Hardly any research or evidence is available about drug abuse and associated problems among university students, issues which constantly attract the attention of public officials, police, teachers, religious leaders and doctors. Two studies of d rug use among Nigerian university students have been conducted , one by Akindele in 1974, who investigated the drug problems of 22 university drop-outs [ 9] , and the other by Ogunremi and Okonofua in 1977, who studied drug use among undergraduate students of the University of Ife [ 10] .

Setting

The present study was conducted at the University of Benin , a federally sponsored institution of higher learning located in Benin City, the capital of Bendel State. With a population estimated at approximately 300,000 in 1978 [ 11] , Benin City is not only the most populous urban area in the State, it is also, as the State capital, a show-place for national and state development schemes. Benin City possesses a well-developed infrastructural base in terms of road network s, nearby port facilities, industrial development, telecommunication facilities, a university, both a teaching and specialist hospital, numerous banking and commercial firms, Government corporations, beer and soft drink manufacturing enterprises, hotels, and numerous other amenities commonly associated with urban life.

The University of Benin, which came i n to existence in the early 1970s after having been upgraded from a technical college of science, has a 1982/83 regular student enrolment of about 6,500 students with a 3 : 1 male/female ratio. In addition to the faculties of arts, creative arts, education, social sciences, engineering and science, the University also has schools of medicine, law, agriculture, optometry, dentistry and pharmacy, as well as an institute of education and a research centre.

Methodology

Data were obtained by using a standardized questionnaire consisting of 33 multiple-choice and open-ended questions, which were almost identical to the questions used in a study of secondary-school students in Warri and Effurun, two rapidly expanding townships in the delta region of Bendel State [ 3] . The main difference consisted of an expanded list of possibly used drugs, which was compiled on the basis of interviewing pharmacists who operated chemist shops close to the University. They were asked to provide the names of drugs purchased by university students for other than legitimate or medically prescribed reasons. The list did not include analgesics, laxatives or antibiotics, nor did it include heroin or morphine, as preliminary field-work had indicated that student use of those opiates was highly improbable.

The questionnaire was distributed to a sample of l90 male and 114 female undergraduates , which was nearly 5 per cent of the student population from the faculties of arts (29 per cent of the sample), creative arts (20 per cent), social sciences (26 per cent) and science (25 per cent). Most of the respondents were in their final two years of university (67 per cent of the sample), which made it possible to study the effects of university experience on the students. Students completed the questionnaires during class hours.

Results

Response rate

The questionnaires were completed by 295 students representing a 97 per cent return rate. Because drug use in a university is a sensitive issue, some students did not answer every question , which resulted in a considerable variation in the response rate on questions pertaining specifically to drug abuse. Some students undoubtedly feared recriminations even though a guarantee of anonymity had of course been given to them. Others probably objected to what they felt was an intrusion of their privacy, while a few no doubt might have been indifferent to the survey exercise and its aims.

General, social and demographic characteristics

The average age of the students in the sample was 24 years for male students and 21.8 for females. The age range for males was 16 - 35 and for females slightly lower.

Because Bendel State is one of the most ethnically complex states in Nigeria, and because the University of Benin is a federal institution with admissions handled by a Joint Admissions Matriculation Board, it is not surprising that 28 ethnic groups were represented in the sample, headed by the Ibo (28 per cent), Yoruba (20 per cent), Bini (16 per cent), Urhob (l3 per cent), Isoko (5 per cent), Ishan (3 per cent) and Itsekiri (2 per cent). There is, however, no apparent linkage between ethnic affiliation and drug abuse.

In terms of religious orientation the students were predominantly Christian (91 per cent). This is typical of southern Nigeria, where Christian missionaries have had a considerable impact, just as Islam is typical of northern Nigeria. A bout 4 per cent of the students claimed to be "free thinkers", which in the local context means an eclectic and individually tailored blend of Christian , traditional, Rosicrucian and other beliefs. Almost 3 per cent professed adherence to some form of traditional belief and 1.4 per cent said they were Muslims. The majority regarded themselves as "moderately religious" in behaviour and sentiment, while 18 per cent said they were very religious. About 8 percent of the male, but none of the female students, regarded themselves as not religious at all. The religious sentiments of the students were similar to those of the general population.

Family ties in Nigeria are very strong and enduring. Adults, especially elders, are accorded a great deal of deference. Over 81 per cent of the sample reported being "very close" to their parents while 16 per cent said that their relationship with their parents was "all right". Only 3 per cent claimed that they did not communicate very much with their parents. Not a single student reported Serious disaffection with their parents.

Knowledge and reported use of drugs

Every student in the sample reported knowing about such common substances as instant coffee, cola nuts (a mild stimulant containing caffeine; the chewable nuts are the dried cotyledons of the tree cola acuminata), alcohol (including beer and palm wine, the fermented Sap of oil and raffia palms), spirits (including ogogoro, a gin-like drink distilled from the sap of the raffia palm) and of course, cigarettes. Table l shows that these were the most widely used substances, more frequently used by male than female students.

Table 1

Knowledge and use of drugs

(Percentage)

 

Males

Females

Substance

Knowledge

Use

Knowledge

Use

Instant coffee
100 96 100 84
Cola nuts
100 93 100 88
Alcohol
100 93 100 67
Spirits
100 87 100 60
Cigarettes
100 66 100 36
Cannabis
96 26 95 5
Mandrax
88 15 72 0
Diazepam/chlordiazepoxide
78 58 86 53
Cocaine
74 4 65 0
"Chinese" capsules
73 9 34 0
Reactivan
54 28 25 6
LSD
52 4 31 0
Ephedrine
29 7 32 3
Proplus
21 16 11 5
Dexamphetamine
15 2 9 0
Nitrazepam
11 6 13 5
Catovit
6 4 4 0
Methylphenidate
5 0 1 0
Methamphetamine
4 2 3 0

a Percentages have been rounded off to the nearest whole number.

Other drugs that were well known to and used by students included : cannabis, Mandrax (a preparation containing methaqualone and diphenhydramine); benzodiazepines (diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and nitrazepam); cocaine; the barbiturate known as "Chinese capsule" probably containing butobarbital (the popular name derives from the fact that the capsules are bright red in colour); Reactivan (a preparation containing some vitamins plus 10 mg 2-ethylamino-3-phenylnorcamphane hydrochloride per tablet; lysergic aciddiethylamide (LSD), ephedrine, Proplus (a preparation containing 50 mg caffeine), and amphetamine-type substances such as dexamphetamine, methylphenidate and methamphetamine.

Knowledge about a drug need not imply actual use. Although 72 per cent of the female students reported knowing about Mandrax none said they had ever tried it. Nevertheless, other data indicate fairly high correlations between knowledge about drugs and their use. In other words the larger the number of students who know about a particular drug is, the greater the likelihood that they will try it.

Table 2 shows students current, past and total use of drugs. * It indicates that, for most types of drug use, less than half the students who had ever tried a drug kept on using it. The exceptions were alcohol, spirits, cola nuts and instant coffee for male students and alcohol for female students. It should be noted that in certain cases the use of a given drug had been discontinued.

Table 2

Current, past and total use of drugs

(Number)

 

Current use

Past use

Total use a

No. of replies b

Substance

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Instant coffee
100 47 79 50 179 97 186 114
Cola nuts
102 33 67 55 169 88 182 100
Alcohol
125 34 45 25 170 59 182 88
Spirits
96 21 53 26 149 47 172 79
Cigarettes
46 7 65 21 111 28 167 7
Cannabis
7 0 31 3 38 3 145 63
Mandrix
2 0 18 0 20 0 135 52
Diazepam / chlordiazepoxide
37 18 53 21 90 39 154 74
Cocaine
3 0 2 0 5 0 135 62
"Chinese" capsules
1 0 12 0 13 0 139 60
Reactivan
14 0 25 4 39 4 137 64
LSD
0 0 5 0 5 0 128 60
Ephedrine
9 0 0 2 9 2 133 63
Proplus
2 1 19 2 21 3 131 59
Dexamphetamine
0 0 3 0 3 0 133 60
Nitrazepam
4 2 4 1 8 3 124 57
Catovit
2 0 3 0 5 0 131 61
Methylphenidate
0 0 2 0 2 0 128 60
Methamphetamine
0 0 3 0 3 0 130 60

a Indicates both current and past use of drugs.

bIndicates the number of respondents who answered this question. Discrepancies in responses between this table and table 3 are due to the unwillingness of some students to answer all the questions relating to actual use of specific drugs.

* "Total use" refers to any drug the respondent has ever at anytime used (or just tried).

Table 3 shows frequency of drug use. Students were asked how often they still used or had used drugs. The replies disclosed that the substances listed were used in most cases several times a month or once a week.

Table 3

Frequency of drug use

(Number)

 

Alcohol

Tobacco

Cannabis

 

Reaction

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

 
Daily
2-3 times a week
once a week
Several times a month
Substance
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Instant coffee
31 17 40 20 29 21 28 20
Cola nuts
15 6 31 0 29 19 47 25
Alcohol
15 1 36 8 38 13 46 23
Spirits
7 0 22 7 40 9 52 14
Cigarettes
45 5 22 8 9 5 12 4
Cannabis
8 0 4 0 4 0 12 0
Mandrix
1 0 2 0 7 0 3 0
Diazepam / chlordiazepoxide
4 2 7 0 8 3 27 7
Cocaine
0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0
"Chinese" capsules
0 0 2 0 2 0 6 0
Reactivan
1 0 6 2 8 1 12 1
LSD
0 0 1 0 1 0 2 0
Ephedrine
0 0 0 0 0 0 7 1
Proplus
0 0 3 0 9 3 5 0
Dexamphetamine
0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0
Nitrazepam
0 0 2 1 2 1 4 1
Catovit
1 0 1 0 0 0 3 0
Methylphenidate
0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Methamphetamine
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0

Drug use and age

In the case of certain substances, there was a clear relationship between age and initial use. Half or more of the students had by the age of 17 experimented with cola nuts, coffee and alcohol. Indeed many students admitted to having eaten cola nuts by the age of 12. Of the students who had ever used Proplus or Mandrax, half or more had tried these substances by the age of 17. Nearly 40 per cent of the males and about a quarter of the females said that they had tried cigarettes by the time they reached the age of 17; similarly, spirits had been imbibed by 4() percent of the males and 31 percent

of the females. About a third of the female students and nearly 20 percent of the males had tried diazepam and/or chlordiazepoxide by the time they were 17 years old; more than a quarter of the male users had also experimented with cannabis and Chinese capsules by that age.

Social factors affecting drug use

The social factors considered here are the use of drugs by close friends Class-mates and parents as well as their reactions to the use of drugs. It is quite likely that the strongest influence on students to use drugs comes from peers and Close friends. Students were asked : "Of the three people you consider your best friends at home (or at university for the second question), how many have used Indian hemp?" Male students were almost equally divided in their replies; female students claimed however, that cannabis was used by nearly twice as many of their closest university friends as their friends at home. This was interesting because it seemed to correspond to the actual patterns of use as reported by the respondents themselves. For example, of the female students who had ever used cannabis, 50 percent said they had used it "exclusively at university" and 25 per cent reported having used it "at home or elsewhere". For male students, the pattern was more evenly divided between university and other settings.

The reaction of parents to the use of alcohol, cigarettes or cannabis may also be a significant factor influencing the acceptance or use of drugs. Table 4 shows the presumed reaction of parents to the use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis by their children. It is clear that, for cannabis and Cigarette smoking, parental disapproval would be quite sharp, though there was a hint in the replies that parents would not be too upset if their son smoked cigarettes. There was also a fair degree of parental tolerance towards the use of alcohol, particularly where male offspring were concerned. The degree of concern may reflect parental use of these substances. Asked to comment on the use of tobacco and alcohol by their parents, about 94 per cent of the students reported that their mother did not smoke at all and 74 per cent reported the same for their father. Nearly 3 per cent of the mothers were reported to be occasional smokers and 3 per cent regular smokers. Nearly 20 per cent of the fathers, however, were regular smokers. As for alcohol, 60 per cent of the mothers and 30 per cent of the fathers of students did not drink at all. About one third of the mothers were regarded as occasional social drinkers, as were just over 50 per cent of the fathers. Nearly 5 per cent of the mothers, and about 18 per cent of the fathers, were said to be either regular or considerable social drinkers.

Table 4

Presumed reaction of parents to the use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis by their children

(Number)

 

Alcohol

Tobacco

Cannabis

Reaction

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Extremely permissive
9 2 7 0 2 0
Tolerant, if used in social situations only
86 30 12 4 3 0
Indifferent
24 5 18 4 1 0
Disapproving
38 28 56 l5 4 4
Extremely disapproving
35 47 96 86 174 107

Attitudes to drug use

More than half the female students expressed a "lack of interest" in experimenting with cannabis, as did 35 per cent of the male students. Nonusers also expressed fears that smoking cannabis would damage their health (47 per cent of the males ; 31 per cent of the females). Religious conviction (about 8 per cent) was an important factor, while 5 per cent said that parental influence was a crucial reason for not using drugs. As for cigarettes, about half of the male and female students who had never smoked reported that they were simply not interested in smoking. More than a quarter of the respondents also mentioned health reasons. Religious beliefs ( 11 per cent) and parental influence (about 8 per cent) were cited as significant reasons for not smoking. The attitudes to drinking were more varied. Approximately a third of the males and half the females cited a lack of interest in experimenting with alcohol. A bout a quarter of the respondents mentioned a health reason. Approximately 20 per cent of the students said that they did not drink because it was against their religion while 10 per cent also mentioned the influence of their parents.

Approximately 41 per cent of the male and 75 per cent of the female users of cannabis reported that they tried it "out of curiosity" ; others cited "kicks" (18 per cent of the males) or "escape from problems" (25 per cent of the females). Some of the students mentioned "getting along with friends" ( 11 per cent) as a factor, while others cited "relaxation" (9 per cent) and "to increase the level o f, self-awareness" (9 per cent).

So far as the use of stimulants was concerned , the most significant reason given was "to study for examinations" (approximately half of the male and female students). Not a single student gave resistance to the Establishment as a reason for using drugs. The use of these drugs was not related to "boredom" or to "physical sensations".

Because cannabis had received a great deal of attention and publicity in Nigeria, students were also asked to state what they thought were the risks involved in its use. Approximately a third of both male and female respondents said the greatest risk of cannabis use was to health. About a quarter of the students mentioned the possibility of addiction. Others ( 14 per cent) suggested that psychological dependence was a distinct possibility, as was the tendency to go on to stronger drugs (12 per cent), or to become physiologically dependent (7 per cent). Nearly 7 per cent pointed to the legal risks involved.

The legal sanction in Nigeria for possession and use of cannabis is 200 naira (or a bout $ US 35.000), or six months imprisonment. Two thirds of the male students and nearly three fourths of the females considered that too lenient. A bout a quarter of the students, however, maintained that the present penalty was "about right" and only 3 percent said that it was too high.

On the issue of what action ought to be taken by university officials against students caught using cannabis, nearly half of the respondents suggested counselling. It should be pointed out that the University of Benin does not as yet have a counselling service for students. However, 1 9 per cent of the male and a third of the females suggested expulsion, while nearly 20 per cent of the students mentioned suspension , as the most suitable course of action to be taken. Some 4 per cent of the students said that only a warning should be given to the student involved. About 10 per cent of the males but only 2 per cent of the females felt that no action should be taken at all.

Discussion

Whether the data presented here indicate serious drug abuse among university students probably depends a great deal upon the perspective from which the issue is viewed . The frequent or even habitual use of cola nuts, in much the same way as coffee is drunk, would hardly call for comment. Students chew cola nuts to keep awake during examinations, while the urban unemployed population use it to stave off the pangs of hunger. Cola nuts are also used in a wide range of traditional and ritual contexts.

Similarly, diazepam and chlordiazepoxide appear to be used by many people without further thought. Businessmen , civil servants, parents and so on use these d rugs to relieve the tensions of modern life. Sometimes prescribed for anxiety, these substances are said to help lower high blood pressure. There seems to be a very casual attitude toward the use of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide, which would make it unlikely that Nigerians would regard their frequent and usually non-prescribed use as drug abuse. The fact that a quarter of the students use them might not therefore be regarded by the public as particularly alarming.

On the other hand , cigarettes are often frowned upon, though they are socially acceptable and quite legal. Comments are sometimes made to, or about, people who, by local standards, smoke cigarettes excessively, though by Western standards their consumption might be considered normal. Thus, by local standards, the fact that 66 per cent of the male and 36 per cent of the female students have, at one or another time, smoked cigarettes, or that a considerable number of students still smoke them, might seem dreadful. However, no in formation is available yet on the actual rates of consumption per day, week o r month. Observation seems to indicate that cigarette consumption must be counted by the "stick" rather than by the packet because that is the way cigarettes are usually purchased. Moreover, at the equivalent of $US 3.50 per packet of 20, most Nigerians simply cannot afford to smoke habitually.

Alcohol in take appears to be quite high, particularly for male students, but the majority of students probably drink on social occasions. No occasion is regarded as complete without alcoholic beverages. Spirits are also used in religious rituals, at social wakekeepings, rites of passage, and indeed a t any celebratory function. Bendel State has at present three breweries, and at least l0 brands of beer are readily available. Smuggled spirits and champagne can also be easily purchased, along with the few brands of locally bottled gin and whisky. Palm wine bars selling locally fermented palm wine and distilled gin are ubiquitous.

Although the Nigerian Government forbids the unauthorized use of barbiturates and amphetamines, these sometimes find their way on to the open market under the guise of unfamiliar trade names. There are also a number of stimulants and the n on-barbiturate depressants, including nitrazepam, to which students have easy access. However, except for the use of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide, and perhaps cannabis, Reactivan and Proplus, student use of such drugs appears to be very limited. Moreover, it is apparent that students take stimulants mainly to remain alert while studying for examinations, in much the same way depressants are used to reduce the tensions which accompany the onset of examinations. Depressants are also employed to Counteract the effects of stimulants once an examination is over and rest is required before the next examination takes place. Generally speaking, once examinations are over for the session , most students appear to stop taking these d rugs until the next set of sessionalexams. Thus, an "on-off-on" pattern seems to exist.

It is important to place in a local context the student use of minor tranquillizers and other drugs. Although there is not a significant student d rug culture now, it is fair to say that, on the whole, Nigeria is fast becoming a drug-oriented society. This means not only that all sorts of drugs are readily available (there are hundreds of chemist shops in Benin City, as well as innumerable small shops selling drugs), but that many people are quick to resort to drugs for every conceivable physical and mental ailment. For even the most inconsequential pains and injuries, people resort to extraordinarily potent pills, injections and all manners of potions and elixirs. For those who Cannot afford the costs of attending a properly run clinic, or for those who are frustrated by the inefficiency and lack of drugs in university and government hospitals, the neighbourhood chemist is often ready to recommend medication and even to give injections. Friends and relatives are also happy to give advice. So strong is the belief in the efficacy of medication that an uneducated parent may be willing to spend a small fortune buying drugs that he believes will relieve his children of, say, the debilitating side-effects of malnutrition , such as lethargy, sores and colds , and a distended belly, rather than to purchase the protein foods that would cure the malnutrition itself.

What the Nigerian public usually have in mind when the issue of drug abuse is raised is the trafficking in and use of cannabis. Most people believe cannabis to be directly linked to a wide range of anti-social and criminal activities. This includes the presumed association of cannabis with armed robbery, thuggery, and other lesser forms of mischief-making, as well as the well-documented instances of hemp smuggling, usually carried out by traders who tape large packages of cannabis to their bodies, fly a broad, sell the cannabis, and return to Nigeria with lace, Madras silks and other contraband goods. Hardly a week goes by, therefore, without some public reference to the dangers of cannabis, including its effects on the youth of Nigeria.

The replies of the university students i n the sample of this study do not suggest rampant use of cannabis. Although a quarter of the male students and about 4 per cent of the female students said they had tried cannabis, only 5 per cent of the males reported continuing to use it. I t is possible that some students were reluctant to state their actual use of cannabis.

Several students reported exposure to Cocaine. Although many students had heard about the d rug, or had perhaps mistaken it for codeine, it does not seem that cocaine is available in Nigeria in any significant quantity. One can hear about an occasional "coke party" but it is difficult to get any accurate information about this. I t is possible that in the larger cities such as Lagos or even in the port cities of Warri and Port Harcourt , the use of cocaine is more widespread.

So far, no instances of heroin use have been reported. However, Nigeria is now considered a transit zone for heroin trafficking ; the country is used as a stopover for traffickers carrying the drug to the United States from South and South-East Asia. Reports in the press (e. g. Nigeria Observer, 4 April l984 : 16) indicated that pilots and passengers from India attempted to smuggle through the international airport at Lagos large quantities of heroin for onward shipment to New York. The effects of this trafficking on the potential abuse of heroin in Nigeria are yet to be determined.

Although the questionnaire sough t in formation on variation in drug use according to the faculty to which the student belonged , the initial analysis of the data failed to show any significant differences in this regard. One might have thought that students in creative arts, for example, would be more casual a bout the use of drugs , or even about attitudes to use than, say, students in the physical sciences or social sciences, but this did not turn out to be the case.

The above survey is limited by its generality. What is needed in the future is more detailed in formation Concerning the rates of consumption of d rugs, in-depth analyses o f patterns of use and a more detailed investigation of the "on-off" syndrome of drug use outlined above. This is especially important because the sequential use of stimulants and depressants is a serious matter which university and other officials ought not to ignore.

References

01

l. J. J. Nevadomsky, "Patterns of self-reported d rug use among secondary school students in Bendel State, Nigeria", Bulletin on Narcotics ( United Nations publication), vol. 33 , No. l (198l), pp. 9 - l9.

02

J. J. Nevadomsky, "Drug experimentation and social use among secondary school students in Bendel State : some recent findings", Nigeria Journal of Economicand Social Research, 1981.

03

J. J. Nevadomsky, "Self-reported drug use among secondary school students in tworapidly developing Nigerian towns", Bulletin on Narcotics (United Nations publication), vol. 34, Nos. 3 and 4 (1982), pp. 2l - 32.

04

J. C. Ebie and O. A. Pela, "Some aspects of drug use among students in Benin City, Nigeria", Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 8, l98 l , pp. 265 - 270.

05

O. A. Pela and J. C. Ebie, "Drug use in Nigeria : a review of epidemiological studies", Bulletin on Narcotics (United Nations publication), vol. 34, Nos. 3 and 4 ( l982), pp. 91 - l00.

06

O. A. Pela and J. C. Ebie, "Some socio-cultural aspects of the problem of drug abuse in Nigeria", Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 8, l98l , pp. 301 - 306.

07

O. G. Oshodin, "Alcohol abuse among high school students in Benin City, Nigeria ", Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 7, l98l , pp.141 - 145.

08

Statement by the vice chancellor of the University of Benin, Sunday Observer, l5 May 1983, p.13.

09

M. O. Akindele, "Students and drugs : a study of 39 problem cases", a paper presented at the Nigerian Medical Association Annual Conference, Enugu, Nigeria, 25 April l974.

10

O. O. Ogunremi and F. E. Okonofua, "Abuse of drugs among Nigerian youths : a university experience", African Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 3, l977, pp. 107 -122, 314.

11

P. Sada, "Population structure and household characteristics in Benin City", Research Bulletin No. l (Benin City, University of Benin, 1978