III. C. Evaluation Terms of Reference (ToR)
1. Roles and Responsibilities
The ToR of the evaluation are developed by the Project Manager.
IEU offers guidance during the drafting process, and reviews, comments on and clears the ToR. The Project Manager then informs the CLP about the evaluation, their role and asks them to comment on the evaluation questions.
Once the ToR are cleared, the Project Manager proceeds with the identification, selection and recruitment of the evaluation team, following the guidelines and clearance process set by IEU.
Most of the previous Sections (Please see Chapter II Sections C, D, E and Chapter III, Section A and B) of the present evaluation handbook (on purpose, scope, timing, budgeting etc.) actually come together in the various parts of the ToR, as described below.
The ToR of the evaluation reflect the Project Manager's understanding of the overall framework of the evaluation.
The ToR form an integral part of the agreement between UNODC and the independent evaluators. Well-considered and well-written ToR, with sufficient clarity and details, are therefore the foundation of a good evaluation and must contain the below content. Please see the Guidelines for Evaluation ToR in the Chapter 3 tools.
ToR Table of Contents
3. Evaluation Methodology
The evaluation methodology is the approach used to collect and analyze data on the programme or project being evaluated.
The Project Manager suggests an evaluation methodology; the evaluation team further develops the evaluation methodology, including the methodological tools, in the Inception Report. (Please see Chapter IV, Section C for further information on Inception Reports)
The evaluation methodology provides the basis for the credibility of the evaluation results.
Project Managers should ask the evaluator to develop an evaluation methodology that:
The methodology paragraph in the ToR could therefore include:
a) Data Collection Methods
The Project Manager suggests the data collection methods to be used by the evaluation team to answer the evaluation questions. The data collection methods in the ToR should be indicative only, as the external evaluators will have to develop the concrete sampling strategy and data collection tools.
The data collection methods should ensure validity, reliability and credibility of the evidence gathered.
To improve reliability and validity of the data collected:
b) Data Sources
Data must be collected from various sources and through various methods to enhance reliability and validity of the evaluation findings. This means that the Project Manager should ensure that at least 3 different methods and 3 different sources are used in the collection of the data.
4. Planning for an Impact Evaluation in the ToR
Should Project Managers want to evaluate impact of their projects/programmes, they should stress in the ToR that impact evaluation is a requirement.
Therefore the evaluation team should reflect on evaluation methods to measure impact depending on the data that is already available, e.g.:
For further information on how to assess impact, please consult Chapter IV, Section C.
5. Declaration of Interest
Before undertaking an evaluation with UNODC, Project Managers should ensure that each evaluator completes a declaration of interest form (please see Chapter III Tools).
The declaration of interest form should be attached to the Terms of Reference of the evaluation.
Please see Chapter III, Section D. for more information on conflict of interest.
The full guidelines for UNODC Terms of Reference of evaluation are set out in the Chapter III Tools.
6. The Case of Joint Evaluation
a) Drafting the ToR
It is generally practical for one party to take the lead in drafting the ToR. After a draft is produced, it should be discussed and agreed upon by the CLP, as well as the partner organisation. It is important to satisfy the interests of all parties concerned in the ToR to the extent possible. Consideration should be given to creating a common agenda reflecting priorities that balance ownership with what is feasible.
b) Determining whose Procedures will be used
Since different organizations take different approaches to evaluation, it is important to allow flexibility to adapt and additional time to accommodate delays due to such differences. There are two common approaches to managing this issue: to agree that the evaluation will be managed based on the system and procedures of one of the partner organizations, or to split the evaluation into components and agree whose systems will be used to manage which components. The ToR should reflect any decision as regards the procedures to be used.
 UNDP Evaluation Handbook