The publication, Smuggling of migrants into, through and from North Africa: A thematic review and annotated bibliography of recent publications is the second in a series of unique publications produced by UNODC. The initial publication, Global Review on Migrant Smuggling gave an overarching analysis of existing literature on migrant smuggling at a global level. The current publication focuses primarily on the patterns and dynamics of migrant smuggling, as it concerns the North African region. Recognizing, however, that irregular migration and smuggling flows are transnational in nature, the review goes beyond North Africa, to also cover sub- Saharan African and European countries affected along the various smuggling routes.
The aim of the review is twofold: to describe major findings on smuggling of migrants; into, through and from North Africa, and to highlight the need for further research on specific issues that have not yet been studied. The review identifies areas where little analysis has yet been carried out, and proposes, for instance; further research to clearly define migrant smuggling routes. Observing that the clandestine and illegal nature of migrant smuggling renders research into its working mechanisms challenging, the review presents the current literature in a manner that highlights the complexity and multifaceted nature of this phenomenon.
Further, the present publication identifies several key areas requisite to understand, address and criminalize migrant smuggling. The literature reviewed is divided into thematic chapters including: quantifying irregular migration and smuggling of migrants, migrant smuggling routes, profiles and characteristics of smuggled migrants, smuggler-migrant relationships, organizational structures of migrant-smuggling routes, modus operandi of migrant smugglers, smugglers fees and the human and social costs of smuggling. Finally, the publication is complemented by an annotated bibliography of the reviewed literature.
Subsequent publications by UNODC will include a qualitative assessment of smuggling of migrants in the Mediterranean region. The assessment is based upon actual interviews given by smuggled migrants and criminal justice practitioners.
The Thematic Review: Smuggling of migrants, into, through and from North Africa is funded by the European Union.
Download the Thematic Review here.
To read more about Migrant Smuggling, click here.
For more anti-smuggling news and events from UNODC, click here.
To contact us for more information, click here.