The purpose of this Global Assessment 2008 is to update information available since Ecstasy and amphetamines - Global Survey 2003. To reflect regional characteristics, the assessment report begins with an assessment of the situation in Asia, where ATS represent the primary drug problem in a number of countries. This is followed by Oceania, the Near and Middle East, Europe, Africa, North America and finally Central and South America and the Caribbean. While all regions in the world are touched upon, focus is primarily given to the ATS situation in countries and regions where available data suggest that the most significant changes have occurred over the past five years and/or where there are indications for further spread. Beyond this regional focus, the present report also highlights selected methodological constraints of ATS-related data gathering including the central role of qualitative information and forensic data to understand the range of products available in illicit ATS markets and the starting materials actually used for manufacture.