United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC)

 

United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC)

 

The frequently transnational nature of Wildlife and Forest Crime (WLFC) make these criminal activities highly relevant to the mandates of UNODC, particularly the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC).

United Nations General Assembly

The General Assembly affirmed the relevance of the UNTOC to fight illicit trafficking in natural resources in its resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000. In this connection, UNODC has an important role to play in terms of strengthening the capacity of Governments to investigate, prosecute and adjudicate crimes against protected species of wild flora and fauna, complementing other international legal frameworks that are relevant for the protection of the environment, as for instance the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Through the years the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) has proclaimed several resolutions that urged Member States to adopt "the legislative or other measures necessary for establishing illicit trafficking in protected species of wild fauna and flora as a criminal offence in their domestic legislation"; to cooperate with UNODC with a view to preventing, combating and eradicating trafficking in protected species of wild fauna and flora; to promote international cooperation in preventing and combating illicit international trafficking in forest and wildlife resources; andto consider making illicit trafficking in endangered species of wild fauna and flora a "serious crime". More recently, in 2013, the ECOSOC adopted Resolution 2013/40 on crime prevention and criminal justice responses against illicit trafficking in protected species of wild fauna and flora.

In 2007, the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ) adopted resolution 16/1 on "International cooperation in preventing and combating illicit international trafficking in forest products, including timber, wildlife, and other forest biological resources".

In January 2014, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolutions 2134 and 2136, require all states to adopt sanctions, namely freezing assets and restricting travel, on any individual or entity involved in wildlife and forest trafficking. These resolutions were primarily designed to target the armed rebel groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in the Central African Republic that use the illegal ivory trade as a source of generating finances or otherwise to benefit from the illegal wildlife trade.

 
 
   
   
   
   
    These above resolutions referred to the utility for States Parties to fully use the frameworks to successfully tackle wildlife and forest offences.