GUINEA ‐ BISSAU
I. Political Context
Guinea‐Bissau is a small West African state with a population of 1.4 million. Its territory includes parts of the African mainland as well as a group of approximately 90 islands - the Bissagos Islands ‐,most of which are uninhabited. Over the past few years, Guinea‐Bissau has been on the top of the international agenda due to its highly unstable political situation and the observed increase in cocaine trafficking. UNODC was one of the first agencies to draw the attention of the international community to drug trafficking in the country.
Currently, the political situation is stabilizing after turmoil caused by the double assassination of the Army Chief of Staff and the President in March 2009. Presidential elections were held in June 2009 resulting in the victory of M. Malam Bacai Sanhá of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC). Legislative elections were held in November 2008. Since both elections took place without seeing contestation of their results, the country can move forward now. The increase in stability is particularly important for the national security sector reform in which the European Union plays a major role, as several legislative reforms were previously put on hold.
In January 2010, the United Nations Office in Guinea‐Bissau became the United Nations Integrated Office for Guinea‐Bissau (UNIOBGIS) which is led by a Special Representative of the UN Secretary‐General. As a result, the UN ‐ through DPKO ‐ will be more involved in the security sector reform (SSR) and working alongside the European Union. The UNDAF was reviewed in February 2010 in order to incorporate this change. Concerning the EU‐SSR mission, it was extended for six months in January 2010. Of particular strategic importance, an MoU will soon be signed between UNODC and UNIOGBIS to ensure the full integration of the UNODC portfolio into the SSR programme. In light of these developments, a Donors Round Table is schedule for 2010.
II. Programme Objectives
The overall objective of the National Integrated Programme for Guinea‐Bissau is to support the efforts of the national government towards reforming its security sector in order to stabilize the peace process and social development of the country and to protect it against drug trafficking and (organized) crime. Taking into account the ECOWAS Regional Action Plan to address the growing problem of illicit drug trafficking, organized crime and drug abuse in West Africa, the ECOWAS Political Declaration on the Prevention of drug Abuse, Illicit Drug Trafficking and Organized Crimes in West Africa, and the changing situation in the country, the National Integrated Programme was reviewed and amended in December 2009. The objective has not changed but the focus of UNODC's activities is now shifting from emergency assistance towards longer‐term capacity‐building initiatives. A new engagement in drug demand reduction and HIV/AIDS prevention is also foreseen. Guinea‐Bissau's NIP covers the period 2007‐2013 as it was partially extended to reflect the revision that occurred in December 2009. The focal point for implementation is the Ministry of Justice.Guinea Bissau also part of the West African Coast Initiative(WACI) and have already set up the local Transnational Crime Unit (TCU).
III. Main Outputs
Following the programme review meeting in December 2009, Guinea‐Bissau's NIP now covers all four Sub‐Programmes of the Regional Programme:
a) Awareness and Research:
Conduct a victimization survey.
b) Drug Prevention and Health:
Provide a comprehensive package of services regarding HIV/AIDS, STI, TB and Hepatitis in prison settings;
Support the development of a national policy on drug abuse;
Support interventions in the area of drug abuse prevention for the general public, outreach services for vulnerable groups, treatment, and reinsertion of drug users;
Establish national coordination bodies and mechanisms to prevent drug abuse;
Mainstream HIV/AIDS and drug abuse prevention into activities linked to law enforcement and justice;
Support the implementation of the recommendations from the Regional Consultation on HIV.
c) Organized Crime, Illicit Trafficking and Terrorism:
Establishment of a UNODC Law Enforcement Agency in Bissau;
Establishment of a specialized unit within the Judiciary Police to investigate and combat drug trafficking and organized crime.
Control over economic and financial activities is being enhanced in Guinea‐Bissau through increasing knowledge on unreported financial flows and economic activities, and the setting up of an effective anti‐money‐laundering operational system;
Detection and interdiction capacities are being improved through development of training institutions and curricula.
Increased capacity of Public Order Police (POP) to improve enforcement of law and order to the citizens of Guinea‐Bissau;
Improved control of borders through increased mobility, communications and intelligence capacity;
Increased operational scope of Judicial Police (expansion to the Bissagos Islands);
Set up of a Training Centre for security forces.
d) Justice and Integrity:
Strengthening of judicial capability to prosecute and sentence criminal offenders (drug related crime).
Establishment of an efficient mechanism to systematically address and control corrupt practices;
Improvement of protection and access to justice for ordinary citizens through support to Houses of Justice programme;
Improvement of access to justice with a focus on children;
Restructuring and enhancement of the prison administration;
Reform of the penitentiary administration;
Development of proper prison and detention centers in Guinea‐Bissau.
Improved legislation on confiscation and asset recovery.
Mitigating and Risk factors:
Although both legislative and presidential elections took place without major complications, the risk of destabilization remains. The memory of the terrible events of March 2009 involving the killings of prominent political actors will not be erased in the near future, particularly considering the current state of health of the president. Moreover, as suggested by recent seizures, drug trafficking has heavily resumed in the country since early 2010.
IV. Monitoring and Evaluation
As a result of the Donors Round Table in December 2007, the National Integrated Programme was divided into two main projects focusing on justice and law enforcement respectively. Following the December review meeting, a new component on drug demand reduction and HIV/AIDS prevention will be added. In addition to the UNODC Programme Office which is to ensure adequate monitoring, a Programme Consultative Board (PCB) has been established. Its main tasks are to review annual work plans and financial reports, monitor progress, endorse annual activity reports, and suggest amendments to the strategy initially proposed. It meets three times a year and is composed of the Ministers of Justice, Foreign Affairs, Internal Administration, Defence, and Finance, in addition UNODC, UNIOGBIS, UNDP, donors and the European Union. At the operational level, both projects mentioned above are headed by an Executive Directorate (ED), whose assignment is to draft work plans, monitor implementation, direct unsolved issues by the PCB to the Prime Minister, and draft annual and semi‐annual reports. The Executive Directorates meet once a month. They include representatives of the main beneficiary agencies, UNODC, UNIOGBIS, UNDP, the donors and the European Union.