This module is a resource for lecturers
The Module commences with an examination of the main purposes of punishment and imprisonment, as well as a brief history of prison reform. Identifying prominent figures and organizations that have advocated for better standards in prison, the Module provides historical context for the more substantive analysis of contemporary trends and key issues with respect to imprisonment. Key issues include: rising prison populations and the problem of overcrowding; the challenges faced by individuals who live and work in prison; and the development of relevant international standards and norms (with primary reference to the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (the Nelson Mandela Rules) which were adopted by the General Assembly on 17 December 2015). Having examined the ways in which prisons can operate humanely - and in a manner consistent with international standards and norms - the Module closes by noting the importance of limiting the use of imprisonment through the use of non-custodial sanctions.