This module is a resource for lecturers
This Module is designed to introduce students to the international standards and norms governing the use of force for the purpose of law enforcement. This includes the police and other law enforcement agencies, including the military when they are exercising policing powers. The Module recognizes that the context in which police use of force varies considerably, in regional and national terms, and varies also according to the circumstances of day-to-day policing work. Key themes covered include an introduction to the general principles of use of force in the context of law enforcement (necessity, proportionality, and precaution). Drawing on the 1979 Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials and the 1990 Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials , the Module examines the internationally agreed principles governing the use of force, with respect to policing public assemblies; the protection of especially vulnerable groups; and the use of less-lethal weapons.