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Technical Consultative Opinions

Since early 2013, UNODC ROPAN has been supporting regional Member States through the elaboration of Technical Consultative Opinions (TCO). These TCOs are designed to clarify the specific substantive questions posed by governmental authorities that fall within the various areas of the UNODC mandate. On one hand, these TCO's aim to support the formulation of public policy in line with international law and international human rights standards. On the other, they aim to contribute in defining the scope and content of the general norms in International Law, in the context of the material being analyzed.

Government authorities in the region interested in requesting a TCO can do so by submitting official correspondence to UNODC ROPAN, outlining the specific question, as well as providing a brief statement on the background that has led to concern.

UNODC ROPAN bases the elaboration of the Technical Consultative Opinions on the national regulatory framework, comparative law, and the international corpus juris on the issue at hand. Furthermore, these Technical Consultative Opinions are governed by the following basic principles:

  1. Publicity: Technical Consultative Opinions are public reports, anything to the contrary would make it impossible for the reasoning used by UNODC ROPAN to effectively contribute to the interpretation of the general norms of international law and in the formulation of policy for other States;
  2. Faculty to define, clarify or reformulate the presented consultations: UNODC ROPAN reserves the right to define, clarify or reformulate the requests presented by government authorities with the aim of adapting these requests in the context of the logical framework used by the Office.
  3. Practical Application of Technical Consultative Opinions: These reports seek to support State authorities in the design of public policy. They are not intended to merely  respond to academic questions, but rather to seek practical application.


List of Technical Consultative Opinions:


001/2013: Clothing for persons deprived of liberty in Panama (available only in Spanish)

002/2013: The use of electronic monitoring bracelets as an alternative measure to imprisonment in Panama

003/2013: Intimate Visits for persons deprived of liberty in Panama (available only in Spanish)

004/2013: Corruption in the context of the Penitentiary System in the Republic of Panama EnglishPortuguese, and  Spanish  

                 Methodology for the elaboratoin of a "Corruption Risk Diagnostic" in the Penitentiary context (available only in Spanish

005/2013: The Right to Participate for persons deprived of liberty in Panama (available only in Spanish)

006/2013: Penitentiary Reform and Alternatives to Imprisonment in the Latin American Context, ex officio (available only in Spanish

007/2013: Commutation of a Sentence for Work and/or Study in the Republic of Panama (available only in Spanish

008/2013: Foreign citizens deprived of liberty in the Republic of Panama (available only in Spanish

  Executive Summary of Opinion 008/2013, translated to English in cooperation with the Embassy of the United Kingdom in Panama

009/2013: From victims to victimizers: Use of the electronic monitoring bracelet and the rights of women in criminal justice (available only in Spanish)



001/2014: The use of anticipated evidence to reduce the victimization of children and adolescents in the Republic of Panama (available only in Spanish)

002/2014: The prevention of torture and other cruel, inhumane and degrading punishments: a possible strategy for the Republic of Panama(available only in Spanish)


Interagency: Juvenile Justice in the Republic of Panama, Technical Consultative Opinion ex officio, directed to the Ministry of Government, the Public Ministry and the Judicial Branch of the Republic of Panama. (available only in Spanish ).