Psycho-social aspects of drug use among university students at Bogotá

Sections

Method
Results
Discussion
Appendix A SOME COMMENTS ON THE STUDY BY THE SUBJECTS
Bibliography

Details

Author: Gerardo MARIN, Maria Eugenia ASTRALAGA,, Gloria CARVALHO, Eduardo CORREA, Silvia Arbelaez de SAMPER, Blanca VELASQUEZ
Pages: 1 to 14
Creation Date: 1974/01/01

Psycho-social aspects of drug use among university students at Bogotá

Gerardo MARIN
School of Psychology, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Department of Psychology, University of the Andes, Bogotá, Colombia. Maria Eugenia ASTRALAGA,
Gloria CARVALHO
Eduardo CORREA
Department of Psychology, University of the Andes Silvia Arbelaez de SAMPER
Blanca VELASQUEZ
School of Psychology, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.

Probably one of the subjects of greatest current interest and concern is the question of use and abuse of illicit drugs. Random observations seem to indicate an increase in illicit drug consumption by modern youth not only in developed but also in developing countries. The sensational and alarmist reports concerning the situation in the latter countries are based on information of no scientific validity obtained by means of uncontrolled observations or from patients in clinics. According to the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (1972) there is not a single study providing reliable data concerning the incidence or prevalence of drug dependence in Latin America.

Most of the studies of illicit drug use carried out in Colombia (Ministry of Justice, 1973; Puentes & Gutierrez, 1973; etc.) used institutional or unrepresentative samples of limited general application. The sole exception is the Abad survey (1973) of final year secondary school students at Medellin, the findings of which were very similar to those of the present study.

In the course of the two national seminars on drug dependence (1972 and 1973) sponsored by the Colombian Institute for Family Welfare at Bogota, the need for knowledge not only about statistics relating to illicit drug use but also about certain psychological and social factors possibly related to such use, became apparent. There are various studies showing some psycho-social aspects of drug dependence, but their point of reference has always been individuals of countries with socio-economic levels substantially different from those of Colombia (for example, Beckett & Nysewander, 1973; Becker, 1963; Blum & Associates, 1969; Goode, 1969; 1972; Gossett & Lewis, 1970; Jessor, Jessor and Finney, 1973; Johnson, 1973; Kulick & Khan, 1972; Marin, 1973; 1974; Robbins et al. , 1971; Robbins et al., 1973; Sadava, 1971; 1972; Secretary of H.E.W., 1972; Shafer Commission, 1972; Smart and Fejer, 1972; Stein & Khan, 1972; Tart, 1971; Tec, 1970; etc.).

The present paper presents the results of an inquiry conducted to determine the psycho-social, demographic and personality aspects of licit and illicit drug use in university circles in Bogotá. [ 3] The investigation was sponsored by COLCIENCIAS and the data were obtained during the first week of September 1973.

Method

Subjects: Responses were obtained from 2,142 Bogotá university students. The subjects were selected by stratified random sampling. Ten Bogotá universities which were in session during the week of the inquiry were included in the sample. According to data supplied by ICFES (1972), the number of respondents accounted for 4.95 per cent, or a representative sample of the population surveyed (Goode & Hatt, 1972; WHO, 1966; Salltiz et al. 1951). It should be noted that for the majority of important variables such as sex, course being studied, university year, etc., the sample was almost completely representative (Londono, 1971). The elementary units were stratified according to the number of students at each university and selected at random in each university. All the subjects selected were regular university students, adults taking further education or refresher classes being excluded. Their average age was 21 years and they included, of course, persons of both sexes, 63.3 per cent being males and the remainder females. Thirty-nine questionnaires were rejected because they contained a high proportion of non-truthful answers or were incomplete. The distribution of the elementary units included in the data analysis is shown in table 1.

Tools:Two questionnaires were used as if they were only one. Firstly, there was the questionnaire established by Robbins et al. (1970) which was designed to examine variables of interest in their investigation of a sample of 12,142 New York City students.

TABLE 1

Distribution of subjects surveyed

University

N

Percentage of students enrolled

Percentage of the sample

No. 1
177 4.98 8.42
No. 2
405 3.45 19.26
No. 3
122 9.00 5.80
No. 4
264 4.88 12.55
No. 5
119 14.94 5.66
No. 6
126 5.74 5.99
No. 7
144 4.72 6.85
No. 8
102 4.18 4.85
No. 9
236 4.75 11.22
No. 10
407 6.19 19.36
Total
2102   99.96

The questionnaire was later adapted to the Colombian population with the help of various Colombian university students. Because it is easy to answer and because of the great quantity of variables it includes, this particular questionnaire was selected from a large range of tools. The reaction of the students who answered the questionnaire was fairly constructive and some of them said that answering it had been an interesting experience (some of their comments are reproduced in appendix A). The questionnaire used provides 122 items of information for each respondent, including the following:

  1. Sex;

  2. Age;

  3. University year;

  4. Course being studied;

  5. Accumulated course average;

  6. Plans for post graduate studies;

  7. Membership of university groups;

  8. Hours of work outside university;

  9. Religion;

  10. Religion of upbringing;

  11. Attitude to religion;

  12. Relations with the opposite sex;

  13. Persons with whom living;

  14. Persons with whom the greater part of life has been lived;

  15. Age at which stopped living with parents;

  16. Level of education of parents;

  17. Resort to psychotherapy;

  18. Re substances:

  1. use in general;

  2. frequency of use at present;

  3. date when used for the first time;

  4. person who suggested it;

  5. reason for which use ended;

  6. parents' attitude to use;

  7. use of it (them) by parents;

  8. personal reasons for abstention;

  9. reasons for using it (them);

  10. their characteristic effects;

  11. opinions concerning them.

Substances:

Alcohol;

Amphetamines;

Barbiturates;

Marihuana;

LSD;

Hallucinogens;

Heroin, opium, cocaine or methadone;

Analgesics;

Antidepressants;

Tranquillizers;

Cigarettes.

In addition to the above-mentioned questionnaire, we used the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) (prepared by H.J. Eysenck to measure neurosis and extroversion-introversion variables) as standardized for the Colombian population by Castro, Barrera and Arcila (1972). [ 4]

4 Procedure: The surveys were carried out by students of psychology; they were anonymous and covered groups of several persons in the classrooms. Previous studies have shown that the anonymous questionnaire is the surest and most valid tool for this type of investigation (Whitehead & Smart, 1971). It should be noted here that, with only a few exceptions, we received the fullest co-operation from the student respondents and from the teachers who allowed the inquiries to be made during lecture hours.

Results

One of the factors which is considered important in the literature is knowledge of the percentage of the population which has occasionally used the various drugs. Table 2 shows the percentages of occasional use for the various drugs covered by the survey.

As can be seen, in this sample marihuana was the illicit drug most used. It is also interesting to note that the percentage of tranquillizer use is almost double that of marihuana use. Transcultural comparisons show that whereas the prevalence of marihuana use by university students in the United States is 44 per cent (Shafer, 1972), in Bogotá it is only 27 per cent.

TABLE 2

Percentages of occasional use for the different drugs

Drug

Percentage

Alcohol
90.0
Amphetamines
10.1
Barbiturates
4.7
Marihuana
26.9
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
3.0
Hallucinogens
4.8
Cocaine
4.5
Analgesics
28.2
Antidepressants
8.6
Tranquillizers
43.3
Cigarettes
73.3

Another point of equal importance is the percentage of subjects who, having used one of the drugs occasionally, continue to do so. Table 3 shows the percentages of the total sample currently using the various substances.

TABLE 3

Percentage of current use of the various substances

Substance

None

About once a month

About once a week

Several times a week

Daily

Alcohol
15.98 59.21 20.83 0.90 0.48
Amphetamines
91.35 4.51 0.19 0.24 0.33
Barbiturates
94.39 2.04 0.24 0.33 0.05
Marihuana
80.84 11.46 1.66 0.71 1.09
LSD
95.44 1.52 0.05 0.00 0.00

Percentage of current use of the various substances (continued)

Substance

None

About once a month

About once a week

Several times a week

Daily

Hallucinogens
94.72 2.48 0.05 0.00 0.00
Cocaine
94.86 2.19 0.14 0.05 0.00
Analgesics
76.13 17.07 0.76 0.43 0.19
Antidepressants
91.20 4.28 0.29 0.19 0.33
Tranquillizers
64.57 24.83 1.71 1.33 1.24

It should be noted that 20.07 per cent of the sample surveyed smoke more than one packet of cigarettes per day.

With respect to table 3, it is found that in the three highest use categories (namely "About once a week", "Several times a week" and "Daily") there are very few subjects who use all the substances, except alcohol. Approximately 22.2 per cent of the sample surveyed use alcohol more than once a week, whereas approximately 4.2 per cent use tranquillizers and approximately 3.4 per cent use marihuana with the same frequency.

It might be interesting to compare the general data obtained here with those obtained in the twin study of New York City in 1970 (Pearlman et al., 1971; Robbins et al., 1970; 1973). Those authors found that drug use was a basic characteristic of university life, the incidence varying from 4 per cent for heroin to 31 per cent for analgesics. In Bogota it was found that the incidence varied from a minimum of 2 per cent for the use of LSD to a maximum of 29 per cent for the use of tranquillizers. An interesting feature of the United States study and of the present study is that a large majority of the subjects who had occasionally used one of the drugs said that at the time of responding to the questionnaire they were no longer doing so.

TABLE 4

Reasons for marihuana use

Reason

Percentage

Facilitates study
0.76
Reduces tension
2.71
Intensifies aesthetic perception
7.23
Sharpens religious understanding
0.52
Relieves depression
2.76
Satisfies curiosity
10.65
To feel well, "with it".
11.84
Deepens self-knowledge
2.81
Facilitates social contacts
0.86
Enriches sexual experiences
2.19
As an adventure
12.46
Form of protest against social values
4.23
To keep active
0.43
Solution to personal problems
5.85
It is fashionable
5.04
Other
3.61

Many authors wonder what reasons a person may give for using some of the illicit drugs. Agusti (1973) suggests that illicit drug use in the Colombian population is attributable to the lack of parental authority, while Heredia (1973) suggests that it is attributable to a rejection of parental authority. According to the sample surveyed, the most important reason, or at least the reason most frequently given, was "adventure", the next in order of frequency being "to feel well or,' with it' " and "to satisfy curiosity". Tables 4, 5 and 6 show the reasons given, and the percentage of the times they were given, for using marihuana, alcohol and cocaine by the elements of the sample

TABLE 5

Reasons for alcohol use

Reason

Percentage

Facilitates study
0.24
Reduces tension
6.89
Intensifies aesthetic perception
0.76
Sharpens religious understanding
0.48
Relieves depression
11.27
Satisfies curiosity
3.19
To feel well, or "with it"
5.42
Deepens self-knowledge
1.05
Facilitates social contacts
14.36
Enriches sexual experiences
1.95
As an adventure
6.56
To protest against social values
1.71
To keep active
1.85
Solution to personal problems
8.18
It is fashionable
1.57
Other
6.66

TABLE 6

Reasons for cocaine use

Reason

Percentage

Facilitates study
0.71
Reduces tension
3.99
Intensifies aesthetic perception
3.80
Sharpens religious understanding
0.76
Relieves depression
3.19
Satisfies curiosity
5.90
To feel well, "with it".
6.28
Deepens self-knowledge
1.43
Facilitates social contacts
0.52
Enriches sexual experiences
1.71
As an adventure
9.56
Form of protest against social values
4.14
To keep active
3.14
As a solution to personal problems
6.94
It is fashionable
3.14
Other
5.18

The following are among the reasons most frequently given for refraining from using drugs, both licit and illicit: (1) no interest or curiosity; (2) fear of physical or mental harm; (3) fear of becoming dependent on the substance. It should be noted that fear of being arrested was the reason given least frequently by all subjects for all the illicit substances included in the questionnaire. Table 7 shows the reasons given, and percentage of the times they were given, for refraining from marihuana, LSD and cocaine use.

TABLE 7

Reasons for refraining from marihuana, LSD and cocaine use (Percentage)

Reason

Marihuana

LSD

Cocaine

No interest or curiosity
46.12 53.07 54.35
Lack of access
0.71 1.19 1.19
Parental influence
1.62 1.43 1.14
Influence of friends
1.43 0.67 0.62
Fear of dependence
8.32 6.85 6.85
Fear of being arrested
0.48 0.43 0.48
Fear of physical/mental harm
9.08 13.03 11.41
Fear of genetic damage
1.47 3.23 3.00
Other
3.14 3.19 3.23

With respect to use at someone's suggestion, the subjects' answers ranged from "nobody" to "friends" with "doctor" and "family" coming in between. For drugs such as marihuana, "use at the suggestion of friends" showed the highest percentage, followed very closely by "at nobody's suggestion". Other illicit drugs were used mainly on the initiative of the respondents themselves. Far more of those questioned consume drugs such as analgesics, antidepressants and tranquillizers at the suggestion of doctors than at the suggestion of other classes of persons. It would seem, therefore, that the high rate of tranquillizer consumption found in this sample was encouraged by doctors. Table 8 shows the percentages for the various classes of persons suggesting marihuana, LSD and cocaine use. Table 9 shows the various classes of persons suggesting analgesic, antidepressant and tranquillizer use.

TABLE 8

Suggestions that marihuana, LSD and cocaine be used (Percentage)

Person who suggested use

Marihuana

LSD

Cocaine

No one
9.42 1.47 1.95
Doctor
0.19 0.00 0.00
Parents
0.10 0.05 0.00
Brother or sister
0.38 0.05 0.10
University friend
3.04 0.33 0.52
Friend outside the university
7.32 0.48 1.33
Other
3.00 0.19 0.19

TABLE 9

Suggestions that analgesics, antidepressants and tranquillizers be used (Percentage)

Person who suggested use

Analgesics

Antidepressants

Tranquillizers

No one
3.42 1.47 7.28
Doctor
16.21 4.33 19.07
Parents
2.52 0.48 5.33
Brother or sister
0.38 0.14 0.67
University friend
0.24 0.14 0.90
Friend outside university
0.48 0.29 1.76
Other
0.31 0.14 1.71

The great majority of the studies conducted in other countries (Shafer, 1972; Holroyd & Kahn, 1972; Robbins et al, 1973; Jessor et al, 1973) have shown that one of the variables of value in predicting illicit drug use by young people of both sexes is consumption of cigarettes and alcohol by the parents.

In the present inquiry it was found that 69 per cent of the subjects' parents used alcohol with some frequency while 58 per cent used cigarettes. It is interesting to compare these data with the proportion of parents using tranquillizers: 44 per cent. Bearing these data in mind, consideration may be given to the significance of models which according to recent psychological theories are important in the incidence of certain behaviour (Bandura & Walters, 1963; Rotter et al, 1972). Table 10 shows the percentage of use of various substances by the parents of the subjects surveyed.

TABLE 10

Percentage of parents of sample subjects using a substance

Substance

Occasional use

Frequent use

Alcohol
56.92 12.60
Amphetamines
2.76 0.48
Barbiturates
3.23 0.62
Marihuana
1.43 0.10
LSD
0.29 0.05
Cocaine
0.76 0.10
Analgesics
30.34 4.52
Antidepressants
17.83 2.47
Tranquillizers
35.62 7.89
Cigarettes
25.34 32.62

As to parental attitude to use of the different drugs, we find that parents disapprove (in the eyes of the children at least) of the use of all drugs except alcohol and cigarettes. Thus, the parents use drugs but disapprove of their children doing so, approving only those drugs they themselves use most frequently; a classical example of the cognitive consistency theory propounded by Festinger (1957).

One of the sections of the questionnaire requested the respondent to describe his reaction to consumption of some of the substances. Table 11 shows percentages for reactions to marihuana, alcohol and cocaine use. It should be noted that these results are fairly similar to those encountered in other inquiries.

TABLE 11

Effects of marihuana, alcohol and cocaine consumption (Percentages)

Effect

Marihuana

Alcohol

Cocaine

Excessive sleepiness/dullness
11.35 23.56 13.28
Fainting
1.11 0.66 1.56
Distorted vision/hearing
12.10 5.02 3.90
Inability to concentrate on studies
8.37 10.36 8.59
Hallucinations
12.47 0.64 7.03
Feelings of omnipotence
4.65 3.15 10.15
Depression
8.37 3.48 5.46
Prolonged nervousness/anxiety
6.51 2.59 3.90
Insomnia
1.48 2.26 10.93
Deficient physical co-ordination
10.80 22.59 6.25
Sensation of losing sanity
3.53 0.80 3.12
Feeling of aggressiveness
1.30 4.37 3.12
Suicidal thoughts or actions
0.93 0.48 3.12
Difficulty in controlling impulses
4.46 8.17 6.25
Recurrence of effects although the substance is not taken
1.67 0.80 3.12
Other
10.80 10.62 10.15

Various investigators (Kohn & Mercer, 1971; Gossett & Lewis, 1970; Smart, Laforest & Whitehead, 1971; WHO, 1971) have attached importance to discovering the modal user of marihuana or any other illicit drug. The modal user of marihuana in the sample study is, in general, a male, between 19 and 21 years of age studying one of the branches of engineering, in the early years of his course, having an accumulated average of 3.5 to 4 and hoping to do post graduate work. He was brought up as a catholic, says that he is of the catholic faith but does not regard himself as religious. As a rule, he goes out with various members of the opposite sex and is at present living at home with his family. His parents have had some secondary education (secondary school certificate) and have always maintained a united home. He has never received psychotherapy and his personality profile is no different from that of a person who has never smoked marihuana. It is interesting to note that this modal person is identical with the person who has used alcohol.

As was noted above, all the subjects responded to the MPI. A comparison between the averages of those who had occasionally used some of the substances and those who had never used them, reveals insignificant differences for all the substances except antidepressants, the users of which obtain a higher average in the neurosis scale than the remainder of the subjects, the difference being significant to 0.001. A similar difference was found for tranquillizer and analgesic use. Table 12 shows the averages of those respondents who used one of the substances occasionally and those of the ones who never used them, in the neurosis (N) and introversion - extroversion (I) scale. It is also interesting to observe the difference in the neurosis profile of those who had occasionally used cocaine. These results appear to contradict the conclusions of the meeting on adolescents and drugs held by the Latin American Association of National Academies of Medecine, where it was suggested that drug dependence was likely to occur "in persons with underlying psychopathic disturbances" (1973, p. 2). One of the last sections of the questionnaire sought an opinion on the use and control of the various drugs. The great majority agreed that there should be a regulation prohibiting or limiting the use of illicit drugs, with the exception of marihuana, the use of which should, in the opinion of approximately 57.83 per cent, be left to the decision of the person concerned. The majority did not agree, however, that marihuana should be legalized on the same basis as alcohol.

A majority (61.43 per cent) were of the opinion that illicit drug use would continue to increase within the university population, although some 59 per cent also believed that frequent use of illicit drugs was detrimental to academic achievement. A high percentage (55.43 per cent) believe that marihuana use leads to the use of other drugs, an opinion contrary to recent findings of other authors (Johnson, 1973; Leong Way, 1965; Goode, 1969; Wooton Report, 1969; Schofield, 1971). A high percentage of the sample (61 per cent) say that students who use drugs are confused, immature and insecure persons.

TABLE 12

MPI averages for subjects who have occasionally used one of the substances and those who have never used them

Substance and factor

Occasionally

Never

t

Antidepressants
     
I
29.01 28.60 0.03
N
27.07 24.26
4.31**
Hallucinogens
     
I
28.98 28.62 0.32
N
23.92 24.54 0.52
Marihuana
     
I
29.20 28.43 1.53
N
24.88 24.37 0.81
Cocaine
     
I
27.16 28.71 1.20
N
22.02 24.62
1.96*
Barbiturates
     
I
28.61 28.64 0.03
N
25.30 24.47 0.60
Amphetamines
     
I
28.56 28.64 0.09
N
25.00 24.45 0.61
LSD
     
I
25.95 28.72 1.74
N
22.97 24.55 0.92
Analgesics
     
I
29.11 28.45 1.22
N
26.20 23.84
4.04**
Alcohol
     
I
28.72 27.83 1.19
N
24.49 24.71 0.63
Cigarettes
     
I
29.22 27.04
3.96**
N
24.65 24.12 1.49
Tranquillizers
     
I
29.02 28.34 1.42
N
27.07 22.55
8.53**

p : 0.05 ** p : 0.001.

Discussion

One of the first findings of this study is the very low prevalence of illicit drugs. In view of the validity of the sampling, it must be concluded that, in the university population surveyed at least, illicit drug use is not excessive. These results are consistent with the assessments of various university administrators at Bogotá who estimated that approximately 25 per cent of the students use marihuana (Secretary of H.E.W. 1972). It may be considered that in Colombia higher education is still a step upward on the socio-economic ladder and that university students do not want to limit their opportunities, the great majority of them believing that marihuana use leads to the use of other drugs and that the use of such other drugs is prejudicial to academic achievement.

Some authors (Goode, 1971; Sadava, 1972) have suggested that marihuana use produces an amotivational syndrome which prevents the subject from working successfully. This does not seem to be the case with the subjects of this sample, whose performance was similar to that of abstainers. These results corroborate those obtained by other authors in different social environments (Jessor et al 1973; Johnson, 1973).

The data obtained reveal the importance of persons regarded as models, such as parents, who not only consume alcohol and cigarettes but also very frequently use such drugs as antidepressants and tranquillizers. The influence of such persons on drug use by their children has been studied by Jessor et al. (1973); our results corroborate theirs. The alleged drug dependence epidemic in the western world would seem, therefore, to be attributable to propaganda in favour of chemical paradises by doctors, parents and the information media. Evidence of this is provided by the fact of drug use by parents, the frequent prescribing by doctors of psycho-active drugs (Socarras, 1973) and the advertising by the audio-visual media of such substances as alcohol, sedatives, analgesics, etc.

In the opinion of those surveyed, police campaigns and repression will not eliminate the prevalence of drug use; it is only by means of education campaigns designed to eliminate cognitive dissonances and limit the influence of parental and medical models that it will be possible to control the phenomenon of drug use in Colombia.

The results of this study and some of the comments on the preliminary reports emphasize the importance of carrying out a nation-wide survey among Colombian university students and of comparing the present results with those which may be obtained a year from now. It is also important that work such as that done by Abad (1973) should be continued among final year secondary school students and that such investigations should be made at the national level. Lastly, in order to obtain a more comprehensive view of the phenomenon of drug dependence in Colombia, it will be essential to study those persons who never go to university and who, by virtue of their socioeconomic condition, may constitute a group with drug dependence characteristics different from those hitherto studied.

Appendix A SOME COMMENTS ON THE STUDY BY THE SUBJECTS

"Of general interest, with sound objectives and designed to achieve a general and truer picture of present day youth. In agreement with the purpose of this inquiry."

"I think it is marvellous that attention should be paid to a person's inner feelings. It must not stop here, but must be extended; in other words, the causes of the difficulties of certain young people and remedies for them must be discovered."

"It is of the greatest importance that a group of psychologists and students of psychology of the various universities of Bogotá. should have wished to conduct this inquiry, since relevant data in our country are very vague. Accept my sincere congratulations."

"The problem, which is currently much discussed, should be eradicated for the good of society. It should be prevented from expanding and growing and attacked by all possible means. I am opposed to its advance."

"Some things are superfluous; otherwise O.K. Let us continue and I assure you, comrades, that we shall go far. Do you not agree?"

"It is interesting and may be very revealing from the statistical point of view."

"There should also be other surveys on other problems affecting the Colombian population. There should be not only surveys, but also attempts to find solutions, since there is little use in knowing how things are without trying to improve them."

"Although I tried marihuana I did so only about seven times, taking very small quantities, and I have never done so again. But I consider these statistics very important because I believe the most important factors contributing to increased drug consumption are prohibition for prohibition's sake and the propaganda conducted among students."

"It seems a fairly interesting questionnaire and I hope it produces good results."

"It seems a very good questionnaire because the questions are very much related and I think the person answering it must always be sincere for his answers would be inconsistent if he were not."

"I consider the project, or "study" as it is called, magnificent. This is really a major world problem and takes no account of race, age, family, creed, nationality etc. The problem must be discussed frankly and constructively if we are to find an honest and constructive solution."

"With my experience of marihuana smoking it seems to me that we must try to achieve maximum control over its use, but by appealing to the individual's sense of responsibility, not by physical punishment."

"What is most important is that the decision to use or not to use drugs should not be influenced in any way by parents (repression) or friends (persuasion)."

"To all the questions there should be added a note 'irrespective of the law'. I believe that the thing to which drug addicts attach the least importance is the law. I am not a drug addict, but I am fed up with the present system which is incapable of solving any problem. The law should not be an authority in dealing with drug addicts."

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1

The original of this article is in Spanish. The study was financed by COLCIENCIAS contract 008-5-05-73.

2

The authors wish to acknowledge the special collaboration of the following persons: Barbara de Marin, Alfonso Vidal, Mario Bedoya, Angela Maria Gutierrez, Ana Maria Escallon, Alba Luz Orozco, Maria Cecilia Castro, Teresita Bernal, Alicia del Socorro Duran, Maria Isabel Acebedo, Dino Fortuna, Cecilia Briceno, Juanita Gomez, Gloria Riveros, Yolanda Phillips, Gloria Luz Correa, Miryam Angel, Carlos Miguel Galvis, Frida Goldstein, Ernesto Samper, Humberto Patino, Maria Clara Gaviria, Nidia Maria Pardo, Constanza Ines Moreno, Patricia Echeverry and all those others who helped to make this study possible.

3

Some of the data presented have already been cited by Marin et al., 1973a, 1973b and Socarras, 1973.

4

The authors wish to acknowledge the help of psychologists Leonidas Castro, Fernando Barrera and Eduardo Arcila, which made it possible to use the MPI.