Illicit traffic and abuse of cannabis in Canada

Sections

ABSTRACT
Introduction
Cannabis-related problems in Canada
Cannabis availability and prices
International sources of supply of the illicit cannabis market in Canada
Illicit cannabis supply and trafficking by country: recent trends

Details

Author: R. T. STAMLER , R. C. FAHLMAN, H. VIGEANT
Pages: 37 to 49
Creation Date: 1985/01/01

Illicit traffic and abuse of cannabis in Canada

R. T. STAMLER
Director, Drug Enforcement Directorate R. C. FAHLMAN
Chief, Strategic Analysis and Publications Section H. VIGEANT
Intelligence Analyst, Strategic Analysis and Publications Section Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

ABSTRACT

In 1984 cannabis derivatives, in particular marijuana, hashish and liquid hashish, continued to be the most readily available drugs of abuse in Canada. Marijuana originating in Colombia decreased on the illicit marijuana market in Canada from an estimated 45 per cent in 1983 to 30 per cent in 1984, but it remained the largest source of marijuana supply. Marijuana originating in Thailand remained at approximately the same level (20 per cent) in 1984 as in 1983, while marijuana of Jamaican origin increased its share in the illicit market from 10 per cent in 1983 to 20 per cent in 1984. Approximately 10 per cent of marijuana on the illicit market originated in Canada, 10 per cent in Mexico, and 10 per cent in the United States of America. In 1984 an estimated 85 per cent of hashish on the illicit market in Canada originated in Lebanon (55 per cent in 1983), 10 per cent in India or Pakistan (31 per cent in 1983) and 5 per cent in Jamaica (2 per cent in 1983). Illicit shipments in tonnes of hashish originating in Lebanon made this the dominant source of supply of the drug. Liquid hashish originating in Jamaica shared 88 per cent of the illicit market of this drug in Canada during 1984, while 10 per cent of the drug originated in Lebanon and 2 per cent in Canada.

In 1984 an estimated 40 per cent of smuggled marijuana entered the illicit market in Canada by air and approximately the same amount by sea, while 20 per cent was smuggled over land. During the same year, hashish was smuggled into Canada primarily by sea, while air accounted for 5 per cent and land for 1 per cent only. Liquid hashish, in contrast, entered Canada primarily by air, and only 9 per cent by land and 1 per cent by sea.

Introduction

This article has been prepared on the basis of the most recent intelligence and information contained in the "National Drug Intelligence Estimates", the "Monthly Drug Intelligence Trend Reports" and the "Foreign Drug Situation Reports" of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). Intelligence and information provided by the "Operational Statistical Reporting System" and the "Automated Drug System" of the RCMP have also been utilized.

The article describes illicit sources of supply of, trafficking in, and demand for, cannabis * in Canada. It also outlines international trends in the illicit cannabis supply and traffic, as these relate to the supply of the illicit drug market in Canada.

Cannabis-related problems in Canada

In 1984, as in the preceding years, cannabis derivatives, that is, marijuana, hashish and liquid hashish, were the most readily available illicit drugs used in Canada. Table 1 shows that, according to RCMP statistics, the total amount of cannabis seized decreased considerably from 1983 to 1984. The amount of seized marijuana decreased from 23,361 kg in 1983 to 3,844 kg in 1984, and the amount of hashish seized declined from 3,467 kg in 1983 to 2,379 kg in 1984. In contrast to the decrease in seizures of marijuana and hashish, the amount of liquid hashish seized increased from 184.7 kg in 1983 to 207.5kg in 1984.

Table 1

Amount of cannabis seized a in Canada, 1980-1984 (Kilograms)

Cannabis derivative

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

Marijuana
33879 7147 17887 23361 3844
Hashish
11993 13952 3421 3467 2379
Liquid hashish
143.7 583.0 261.9 184.7 207.5
Total
46015.7 21682.0 21569.9 27012.7 6430.5

aIncludes cannabis seized by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and Canada Customs.

* The term cannabis in this article refers to marijuana, hashisvh and liquid hashish.

The emphasis of drug law enforcement in 1984 was placed on interception of other drugs, especially heroin and cocaine, which might help to explain the reasons for such a decrease. The lack of seizures of cannabis in mother ships on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts is also a factor that could contribute to the decrease in the quantities of cannabis seized.

The overall decrease in the amount of cannabis seized in 1984 was accompanied by the decrease (15.35 per cent) in the number of persons charged for cannabis-related offences (see table 2). In 1984, 10,354 charges for possession were recorded (12,018 in 1983) and 2,014 charges for trafficking (2,682 in 1983). This decrease was accompanied by a slight increase (0.74 per cent) in the number of charges for import and (1.6 per cent) for cultivation of cannabis in 1984. It is of interest to note that in spite of remote locations and poor climatic conditions, cannabis was increasingly cultivated throughout Canada in 1984. Traffickers turn more frequently to indoor cultivation in an effort to improve crop yield and avoid possible detection. Intelligence reveals that cultivation of marijuana in the Atlantic region appears to be increasing and that a more potent variety of cannabis plant is grown, though no commercial-scale operations have so far been uncovered. An increase in cannabis cultivation is also reported in central Canada, especially in rural areas.

Table 2

Number of persons charged for cannabis-related offences, 1980-1984 a

Charge

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

Possession
18427 18208 12549 12018 10354
Trafficking b
4159 4132 3505 2682 2014
Import
155 85 128 269 271
Cultivation
122 69 106 189 192
Total
22863 22494 16288 15158 12831

aPersons charged by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police only.

bIncludes possession for the purpose of trafficking.

Cannabis availability and prices

The RCMP drug intelligence co-ordinators report that cannabis is frequently available on the illicit drug market in abundant quantities. The number of users appears to be stable, with regard to consumption of both domestically produced and imported varieties of cannabis. The varieties, such as "Thai sticks", "sinsemilla" and "Mexican red hair", which are known for their high content of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are popular in certain parts of the country. The use of hashish and liquid hashish was most prevalent in central and eastern Canada. Geographical variations in supply and demand were noted in 1984. Although most of the illegal cultivation of cannabis in 1984 was found in British Columbia, domestic illegal cultivation was encountered throughout Canada. Indoor cultivation and hydroponics make it possible to produce higher levels of THC and more effectively exercise crop control and protection of cannabis plants from adverse climatic conditions.

Intelligence reports indicate that the Atlantic Coast will most probably continue to be a North American gateway to illicit marijuana shipments from Colombia and for hashish from Europe and Africa. The west coast of Canada will most likely be a destination for illegal operations of mother ships from other countries, including Colombia, Mexico and Thailand.

The prices of cannabis derivatives in 1984 (see tables 3, 4, and 5) were similar to prices prevailing in 1983.

Table 3

Prices of marijuana at successive stages of illicit trafficking, 1984

 

Prices by country of origin (Canadian dollars)

Stage of trafficking

Colombia

Jamaica

Thailand

United States

Grower (per 1 lb)
50
10-35
5-25
1300-1950 a
Trafficker in Canada (per 1 lb)
650-1000
400-600
2500
2500-3000 a
Street level in Canada (per 1 oz)
60-125
35-60
25-40 b
200-300 a

Note: 1 lb (16 oz) = 0.4536 kg.

aPrices of a variety of marijuana called "sinsemilla".

bPrices per stick.

Table 4

Prices of hashish at successive stages of trafficking, 1984

 

Prices by country of origin (Canadian dollars)

Stage of trafficking

Lebanon

Pakistan or India

Grower (per 1 lb)
175-300
90-140
Trafficker in Canada (per 1 lb)
1500-3500
1500-3500
Street level in Canada (per 1 oz)
150-300
150-300
Street level in Canada (per 1 gr)
10-30
10-30

Note: 1 lb (16 oz) = 0.4536 kg.

Table 5

Prices of liquid hashish at successive stages of trafficking, 1984

 

Prices by country of origin (Canadian dollars)

Stage of trafficking

Jamaica

Lebanon

Grower (per 1 lb)
1120
470-710
Trafficker in Canada (per 1 lb)
4000-6500
4000-6500
Street level in Canada (per 1 oz)
400-600
400-600
Street level in Canada (per 1 gr)
20-50
20-50

Note: 1 lb (16 oz) = 0.4536 kg.

As in previous years, street prices of cannabis were lower in the larger metropolitan areas of Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, and higher in the smaller communities and more remote areas. At any level of distribution, prices of hashish and hashish oil do not fluctuate greatly on the illicit market in Canada, regardless of the country of origin of the drugs.

International sources of supply of the illicit cannabis market in Canada

In 1984, according to the estimates contained in table 6, the largest amount of marijuana on the illicit market in Canada originated in Colombia (30 per cent), followed by marijuana originating in Jamaica (20 per cent) and Thailand (20 per cent). The remaining 30 percent originated in Canada (10 per cent), Mexico (10 per cent) and the United States of America (10 per cent). With regard to hashish, it was estimated that the largest amount on the illicit market in Canada in 1984 originated in Lebanon (85 per cent), while only 10 per cent originated in India or Pakistan and 5 per cent in Jamaica. Liquid hashish on the illicit market in Canada originated principally in Jamaica (88 per cent), followed by supplies originating in Lebanon (10 per cent), while only 2 percent of the drug was supplied by clandestine laboratories in Canada.

Table 6

Estimated shares of marijuana, hashish and liquid hashish on the illicit market in Canada by country of origin, 1984

 

Share of the illicit market in Canada (percentages)

Country of origin

Marijuana

Hashish

Liquid hashish

Canada
10
-
2
Colombia
30
-
-
India or Pakistan
-
10
-
Jamaica
20 5 88
Lebanon
-
85 10
Mexico
10
-
-
Thailand
20
-
-
United States
10
-
-

Illicit cannabis supply and trafficking by country: recent trends

The illicit supply of cannabis and recent trends in cannabis trafficking are considered below from a Canadian perspective.

Cannabis originating in Canada

Supply

During 1984 the illicit cannabis market in Canada was supplied mainly by international sources and a smaller portion by domestic sources. An estimated 10 per cent of marijuana and 2 per cent of hashish oil on the illicit cannabis market in Canada was, in 1984, of domestic origin. In 1984 one clandestine laboratory of liquid hashish was dismantled in British Columbia and another in Quebec, but they were operated on a small scale, capable of producing only limited amounts of liquid hashish. Indoor cultivation and hydroponics are becoming more widely used to obtain cannabis of a higher potency and also to avoid detection.

Trafficking

A widespread and plentiful supply of cannabis derivatives, particularly marijuana, has been the trend throughout Canada in recent years.

Mari juana, hashish and liquid hashish originating in other countries reached the illicit drug market in Canada by air, land and sea, in private and commercial aircraft, vessels and motor vehicles. Standard concealment methods encountered in 1984 included internal carries, body packs, regular and modified luggage and containers, handicrafts, toys, sports and musical equipment, as well as perishable and canned foods. Retail price levels for hashish and liquid hashish in 1984 were similar to those recorded in 1983 ($Can 10 to $Can 30 per gram of hashish and $Can 20 to $Can 50 per gram of liquid hashish). Prices of marijuana from foreign supplies were also stable during 1984.

Cannabis originating in Colombia

Supply

Marijuana originating in Colombia was the major source of supply of the illicit cannabis market in Canada. The principal growing areas of cannabis in Colombia are concentrated in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Sierra de Perija mountain ranges of the north-eastern departments of Magdalena, Cesar and La Guajira. Cannabis is also illicitly cultivated in the areas of the Llanos, Choco, Sucre, Bolivar, Santander, Antioquia and Cordoba.

An estimated area ranging from 10,000 to 12,000 hectares was under cannabis cultivation in 1984. Based on two harvests per year, the estimates indicated that the 1984 production of marijuana was between 20,000 and 36,000 tonnes, and that the eradication campaign carried out by the Government reduced these figures by 4,000 to 6,000 tonnes. Although marijuana is grown throughout the year in Colombia, the spring period from March to May and the autumn period from September to November correspond to the two annual harvests. The autumn harvest is considered to be larger than the spring one. There are indications of a possible change in cannabis harvest patterns in Colombia. Growers may begin to stagger crops instead of preparing for spring and autumn harvest in order to ensure a yearround supply.

Trafficking

According to RCMP intelligence, marijuana originating in Colombia decreased its share in the illicit marijuana market in Canada from an estimated 45 percent in 1983 to 30 percent in 1984. This decrease, which commenced in early 1980, can be explained by increased law enforcement activities attacking all phases of marijuana production, including illicit cultivation, harvest, storage and distribution, and also by competition of marijuana originating in other countries. If the implementation of Colombian law enforcement measures continues at the same level as in 1984, the decreasing trend should continue.

Individual farmers illicitly cultivate and harvest the cannabis crop and sell it to drug traffickers. The latter also cultivate cannabis on their own land. After the plants have been cut and dried, they are packaged in bundles weighing approximately 20 to 35 kg, which are then transported by mule, truck and boat to staging areas at clandestine airstrips or near beaches for further delivery to illicit markets, mainly in North America. Drug traffickers from Colombia have effectively organized an integrated air, sea and land transport network with communications and security support to deliver their product to the illicit markets. Most of the marijuana is shipped by noncommercial maritime vessels from the northern coast of Colombia mainly via the Caribbean and less often via the Pacific. Only a small portion of marijuana is transported by airplanes.

Mother ships, which include fishing boats and coastal freighters, are used as an integral part of marijuana trafficking operations. Smaller vessels are used as shuttles between the embarking zones and the mother ships which are usually located outside the 12-mile territorial waters. The mother ships then head out to sea to meet other foreign vessels for the onward journey and the transfer of the contraband to the final destination points. Staging areas include the northern coast of Colombia around Portete and Taganga Bays to the coast of Panama and the Netherlands Antilles. Drug traffickers mainly use the coastal cities of Barranquilla, Cartagena and Santa Marta for smuggling operations. Loading often occurs at night in an attempt to avoid detection. Mother ships carry shipments of approximately 10 tonnes, though larger shipments of up to 50 tonnes are also encountered. Smuggling activities in Colombia reach their peak in the third quarter of the year, because the autumn harvest is usually more abundant than the spring one. In 1984 sustained drug enforcement in Colombia forced drug traffickers to change their marijuana processing operations, placing more emphasis on storage facilities and staging zones rather than on growing areas.

Cannabis originating in India or Pakistan

Supply

Significant quantities of cannabis originating in India or Pakistan reached the illicit cannabis market in Canada in 1984. Drug traffickers also utilized these two countries for the storage and distribution of cannabis in the process of trafficking it between the areas of its cultivation and its ultimate consumers. Cannabis plants are indigenous to both India and Pakistan. In India, hashish or "charas" production can be traced to the States of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu. In Pakistan, the northern part of the country is more associated with cannabis-growing and -processing. Cannabis is mainly cultivated in Chitral, including the Mastuj subdivision, the northern mountains and valleys of Dir, Swat, Hazara, Kohistan and adjoining areas of Gilgit and the Yasin valley. According to intelligence reports, hashish producers in Pakistan have the capacity to produce approximately 200 tonnes of the drug annually. A portion of this quantity reaches international illicit markets via India. According to information provided by the Pakistan Narcotic Control Board, over 35 tonnes of hashish were seized in Pakistan in 1984. No exact figures exist to show how much hashish is produced annually in India, but intelligence reports indicate that this production is generally directed to local consumption. Seizure statistics show that in India approximately 10 tonnes of cannabis were removed from the illicit market in 1984.

Trafficking

Hashish originating in India or Pakistan decreased its share in the illicit hashish market in Canada from an estimated 31 percent in 1983 to 10 percent in 1984. While in 1983 an estimated 7 percent of liquid hashish on the illicit market in Canada originated in India or Pakistan, in 1984 there were no seizures of the drug from these two countries.

Hashish smuggling from India or Pakistan to Canada is often carried out on a small scale, usually using couriers travelling to Montreal or Toronto on commercial airlines with the drug concealed in their luggage. Quantities of up to 12 kg concealed in luggage were seized in 1984. Large-scale trafficking is frequently attempted by sea. A removal of 325 kg of hashish in December 1984 from a container of roofing tiles in Vancouver, which was sent from Bombay via Seattle, Washington, was an example of the second type of smuggling.

Cannabis originating in Jamaica

Supply

The geographical location of the northern Caribbean region between the drug-producing areas in South America, primarily Bolivia, Colombia and Peru, and the illicit drug market in North America, offers favourable conditions for the illegal storage and onward movement of cocaine and marijuana, and because of such conditions this region has become a major transit point for international drug trafficking.

The illicit production and processing in Jamaica of cannabis destined for the illicit drug market in Canada is the largest in the Caribbean region. Since 1983 drug-related problems in Jamaica have remained at approximately the same level. The illicit export, transport and use of cocaine and cannabis derivatives from domestic and foreign sources are causes of major concern to the Government of Jamaica. Cannabis is illicitly grown in the north-central and south-central areas of the country, particularly in the parishes of Westmoreland, St. Ann, St. Elizabeth, Clarendon, Hanover and Manchester, with an estimated 1,400 to 2,400 hectares under cultivation in 1984. The annual production of marijuana in 1984 was estimated at 4,000 to 6,000 tonnes, but the actual figures might be lower due to eradication, seizures and spoilage of some of the drug. Domestic consumption accounts for approximately 20 per cent of the marijuana production and the balance is destined for illicit markets abroad.

Trafficking

In 1984 an estimated 20 per cent (10 per cent in 1983) of the illicit marijuana market in Canada was accounted for by marijuana originating in Jamaica.

According to the 1984 RCMP drug seizure statistics, hashish originating in Jamaica increased its share in the illicit hashish market in Canada from an estimated 2 per cent in 1983 to 5 per cent in 1984, and liquid hashish from an estimated 80 per cent in 1983 to 88 per cent in 1984. Less competitive conditions of illicit supplies of hashish from Lebanon, arising from the current political situation in that country, may have contributed to the increase in the illicit supply from Jamaica.

Marijuana destined for North America leaves Jamaica by sea, air cargo, body packs, luggage, regular or modified containers and the postal system. Body packs and luggage are favoured smuggling methods for small-scale trafficking, while large transport is frequently operated by private airplanes. The major portion of marijuana originating in Jamaica is directed to illicit markets in the United States and the smaller portion to Canada, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and destinations within the Caribbean. Hundreds of letters sent to Canada every year containing small amounts of marijuana are intercepted by Jamaican and Canadian postal authorities. A number of tourists, as well as Jamaican residents have been found to smuggle drugs into Canada using the postal service.

Cannabis originating in Lebanon

Supply

It is estimated that in 1984 the largest amount of hashish on the illicit market in Canada originated in Lebanon. Cannabis is mainly cultivated in the north-eastern region of the country, encompassing the Bekaa Valley. Factors conducive to illegal cannabis cultivation are the climate, the disrupted economy and the lack of central drug law enforcement. The estimates indicate that the areas under cannabis cultivation in 1984 reached 20,000 hectares, with approximately 4,000 farmers each growing cannabis on an average of five hectares, and that hashish producers have an annual capacity of 700 tonnes of the drug. In 1983 and 1984, hashish production destined for illicit markets in Europe and North America were estimated at 350 to 400 tonnes, which was somewhat less than the quantities available in the mid-1970s. A small part of hashish is converted into liquid hashish. Three to six kilograms of hashish are needed to produce one kilogram of liquid hashish. Stockpiles of these drugs may be accumulating as their prices decrease and shipping costs increase.

Trafficking

Because of the current political situation in Lebanon, the disruption of various activities and services, including normal trade on roads, at airports and seaports, have to a certain extent limited the local traffickers' ability to respond to the illicit demand for hashish in North America and Europe. In spite of these limitations, the supply of hashish of Lebanese origin has substantially increased. Drug traffickers from Syria have stepped in to take advantage of these changing conditions. These traffickers will very probably expand their operations in the international drug trade in the near future, if the conditions mentioned above prevail.

In 1984 supplies originating in Lebanon accounted for an estimated 85 per cent (55 per cent in 1983) of hashish and 10 per cent of liquid hashish on the illicit market for those substances in Canada (see table 6). In December 1984 a shipment of 3,180 kilograms of hashish from Lebanon destined for Montreal was intercepted in Italy. Similar large-scale shipments using maritime conveyance have recently been encountered. It appears that drug traffickers, despite the political situation, still manage to make a profit from cannabis trafficking.

Canadian seizures show that, at present, hashish from Lebanon is primarily smuggled in bulk by sea, carried by vessels crossing the Mediterranean and the Atlantic.

Cannabis originating in Mexico

Supply

Intelligence reports indicate that in 1984 there was an alarming resurgence in year-round illicit cultivation of cannabis in Mexico. Mexico was also used as a trans-shipment area for cocaine and marijuana processed in Colombia and destined for the illicit market in Canada. The favourable climatic conditions that prevailed during 1984 accounted for bumper crops of marijuana and opium poppies. Estimated amounts of cannabis produced in 1984 were significantly higher than in 1983. Drug law enforcement authorities estimate that between 9,000 and over 10,000 hectares are under illicit cannabis cultivation. Based on two harvests per year and an average yield of 1.1 tonnes of marijuana per hectare in one harvest, an estimated 20,000 to 22,000 tonnes may be harvested during a year. The eradication programme, crop loss and seizures can reduce these potential figures significantly. Over 3,500 hectares of illicitly cultivated cannabis were destroyed in 1984, compared with 2,600 hectares in 1983. The objective for 1985 is to destroy 3,600 hectares of cannabis.

Trafficking

The Chihuahua seizure in November 1984 of approximately 10,000 tonnes of unprocessed cannabis and the dismantling of a major processing and transport centre should result in a significant disruption in the availability of marijuana originating in Mexico. The quantity seized could have yielded from 1,900 to 2,400 tonnes of marketable marijuana. This operation is the largest marijuana seizure to date in Mexico and the single largest removal of bulk marijuana on record. The authorities discovered that more than 6,000 workers were employed to cultivate, harvest, package and transport the drug in that operation.

In 1984, marijuana originating in Mexico accounted for 10 percent of the illicit market in Canada. That was the first year that marijuana of Mexican origin was identified as holding a significant share of the illicit marijuana market in Canada. The eradication and other law enforcement measures implemented by the government authorities in Colombia have disrupted well-established illicit supplies of marijuana by drug traffickers from that country, which is now being filled by illicit supplies originating in Canada, Mexico and the United States. This shows how international drug traffickers manage to respond quickly to changing conditions in order to improve their market shares and profits.

Aircraft, trucks, tractor, trailers, fuel tankers and other cargo carriers are used extensively to ensure delivery of marijuana to the border areas between the United States and Mexico. Numerous clandestine airstrips situated in remote locations facilitate the smuggling of drugs. Vessels transporting drug shipments also use Mexican coastal waters. The Yucatan Peninsula is recognized as the major vessel off-loading area for illegal drug shipments destined for international markets.

Cannabis originating in Thailand

Supply

Drug traffickers in Thailand are expanding illicit production of marijuana to respond to the growing demand for the drug on the illicit markets of that country and abroad. Recent intelligence reports from Thailand reveal that cannabis grows both on hilly terrain and on flat lowlands, but the cultivation is often interspersed among legitimate crops to deter detection. It is mainly cultivated in 12 of the 17 provinces in the northeast, centred around Nakhon Phanom, Sakhon Nakhon and Nong Khai. The cultivation of cannabis is recognized by the government authorities as a serious national and international problem of a criminal nature, which is motivated exclusively by profit.

Trafficking

In 1984 an estimated 20 per cent of the illicit marijuana market in Canada was accounted for by marijuana originating in Thailand, remaining at approximately the same level as in 1983. In recent years, a small number of large-scale seizures of marijuana from this source of supply have been made in Canada. An example of a larger seizure is that of 760kg of marijuana made at Vancouver in March 1984.

Maritime conveyance is the primary method utilized by drug traffickers to transport marijuana from Thailand to Canada. The major trafficking route for illegal export of marijuana from Thailand to other countries is also by sea. The drug is transported from the growing areas in bulk to Bangkok or to various points along the Gulf of Thailand where small vessels, such as fishing trawlers, supply mother ships. Intelligence reports indicate that in 1984 the movement of marijuana within the country was controlled by traffickers from Thailand, while foreign nationals were involved in international smuggling operations.

Cannabis originating in the United States

The amount of illicit cannabis produced in the United States was estimated in 1984 at 1,700 tonnes, while illicit supplies from other countries accounted for 9,700 to 14,350 tonnes. Approximately 11 per cent of the illicit marijuana market in the United States was supplied by marijuana of domestic origin, approximately the same level as in 1983.

Trafficking

In 1984 an estimated 10 per cent of the illicit marijuana market in Canada was supplied by marijuana originating in the United States, approximately the same level as in 1983. Seizures of marijuana originating in the United States were recorded in 1984 throughout Canada in amounts varying from 100 grams to many kilograms. The States of California, Michigan, New York and Vermont were identified in 1984 as either transiting points for trafficking or areas in which marijuana seized in Canada had been grown.

Marijuana was smuggled during 1984 mainly by air and by land, concealed in automobiles, trucks and other vehicles, as well as in luggage and body packs. It was also smuggled by letters sent through the postal system.