Islamic Republic of Iran




Drug Money-the illicit proceeds of opiates trafficked (Balkan route)

In the context of controlling the supply and demand of illicit drugs, and lessening their burden on the social and economic fabric and stability of United Nations Member States, UNODC has set itself the goal of improving understanding of the economics behind the illicit trafficking of opiates originating in Afghanistan, the source of the vast majority of the world's illicit opiates. This study estimates the monetary value (value added) of illicit opiates trafficked on the main conduit for illicit Afghan opiates to Europe, the so-called "Balkan route". [Full text - En]


Afghan opiate trafficking 2015 (Southern route)

Afghan heroin is trafficked to every region of the world except Latin America. Trafficking heroin from production centres to heroin markets requires a global network of routes and facilitation by domestic and international criminal groups. Some routes appear to develop as a result of geographic proximity, while others are associated increasingly intricate, but longer-lasting patterns are apparent. This report presents insights into the southerly flows of heroin out of Afghanistan - a collection of trafficking routes and organized criminal groups that constitute the southern route. UNODC has identified the northern route, the Balkan route and the southern route as the main heroin trafficking routes out of Afghanistan. [Full text - En]


Misuse of Licit Trade for Opiate Trafficking in West and Central Asia: A Threat Assessment 

This report analyses the role of dry ports in the regional trade network and highlights the risk of their abuse by drug traffickers. It also contains an in-depth analysis of the ways in which drug traffickers abuse the trade network to smuggle opiates. Many of the problems and risks that are identified in relation to trade agreements, dry ports and the transportation network in Western and Central Asia can also be applied to many other regions in the world. [Full text - En]





Addiction, Crime and Insurgency: The Transnational Threat of Afghan Opium

The report looks at the multiple consequences of Afghan drugs as they move through neighboring states, along the Balkan and Eurasian routes, ending up in Europe, the Russian Federation, even China and India. This analysis is proposed to help the international community appreciate the fact that we all are part of the Afghan drug problem: hence, we all must work for its solution, addressing all links of the drug chain: (i.) assistance to farmers to reduce supply, (ii.) drug prevention and treatment to curb demand, and (iii.) law enforcement against intermediaries. [Full text -En]




  The Global Afghan Opium Trade: A Threat Assessment

Opiates originating in Afghanistan threaten the health and well-being of people in many regions of the world. Their illicit trade also adversely impacts governance, security, stability and development-in Afghanistan, in its neighbors, in the broader region and beyond. The Global Afghan Opium Trade: A Threat Assessment, the second such report of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime research project on the topic, covers worldwide flows of Afghan opiates, as well as trafficking in precursor chemicals used to turn opium into heroin. By providing a better understanding of the global impact of Afghan opiates, this report can help the international community identify vulnerabilities and possible countermeasures. [Full text - En]



Afghanistan Opium Survey 2013

Opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan reached a sobering record high in 2013. According to the 2013 Afghanistan Opium Survey, cultivation amounted to some 209,000 hectares, outstripping the earlier record in 2007 of 193,000 hectares, and representing a 36 per cent increase over 2012. Moreover, two provinces that had previously been declared poppy-free, Faryab and Balkh in northern Afghanistan, lost this status. All in all, opium production in 2013 went up to some 5,500 tons, a 49 per cent increase over 2012. [Full text -En]



  Afghanistan Opium Risk Assessment 2013

In 2013, the Opium Risk Assessment was carried out in two phases similar to the year before. The first phase was implemented between December 2012 and January 2013 and covered the Central, Eastern, Southern and Western region, where opium was sown in fall 2012. The second phase took place in February-March 2013 and covered the Northern and North-eastern regions, where opium poppy is mainly cultivated in spring. This report presents the findings of both phases. According to the 2013 Opium Risk Assessment increases in poppy cultivation are expected in most regions and in the main poppy-growing provinces. [Full text - En]