Monitoring of illicit drug cultivation, production and manufacture

UNODC provides evidence on the general situation and trends in the production of opiates, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants and cannabis at the global, regional and national levels to strengthen responses to the world drug problem. Its analysis of the drug supply situation is presented in the annual World Drug Report.

To enhance knowledge and support countries in the collection of and reporting on data, UNODC works with Member States to monitor drug cultivation, production and manufacture of cocaine, heroin, cannabis and synthetic drugs / new psychoactive substances (NPS) around the world. UNODC also supports the monitoring of precursors, in collaboration with INCB, and other chemicals used in the illicit manufacture of drugs. The monitoring systems supported by UNODC are tailored to the national contexts and emphasise training and development of local expertise. Collaboration with regional partners, intergovernmental organizations and academic institutions enhances monitoring capacities at national, regional and international levels.

Jointly with the main drug-growing countries in the world - Colombia, Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia for coca, Afghanistan, Mexico and Myanmar for opium and Nigeria for cannabis – the UNODC Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme (ICMP) uses GIS and geospatial analysis, satellite imagery and field surveys to monitor the extent and evolution of illicit crop cultivation and production, as well as the factors driving illicit cultivation. The crop and socio-economic surveys help Governments in their policy development and in planning how to tackle illicit drug production. The direct participation of UNODC in national monitoring systems safeguards transparency of survey and estimation methodologies, ensures international comparability and gives additional credibility to the results.

The SMART Programme, a dedicated synthetic drugs monitoring programme, assists Governments in generating, analysing and using synthetic drug information for policy design and programme interventions, while the Early Warning Advisory (EWA) monitors, analyses and reports trends on New Psychoactive Substances.

Besides its activities on drug cultivation and production, UNODC research on drug supply also encompasses activities to monitor and analyse drug trafficking at national, regional and international levels.