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Conclusion

 

When a state experiences a cyberintervention by another state, the state may consider taking some form of action against the offending state as long as it is in accordance with international laws. The response taken depends on the type of cyberintervention experienced. The use of cyber proxies by governments has made the countering of cyberespionage, information warfare, and disinformation and the attribution of these crimes to a specific state particularly challenging for authorities worldwide. Legal responses to cyberinterventions have varied from criminal justice responses to retorsions to reprisals. In addition to legal responses, education initiatives have been promoted to counter the acceptance and spread of disinformation, fake news, and misinformation.

 
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