This module is a resource for lecturers  


Advanced reading


The following readings are recommended for students interested in exploring the topics of this Module in more detail, and for lecturers teaching the Module:

International and Regional Frameworks

  • Curtis, G. and Karacan, T. (2002). The Nexus Among Terrorists, Narcotics Traffickers, Weapons Proliferators, and Organised Crime Networks in Western Europe, Federal Research Division Library of Congress.
  • Makarenko, T. (2012). Europe's Crime-Terror Nexus: Links between terrorist and organized crime groups in the European Union, Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, European Parliament.
  • Normark, M., Ranstorp, M. and Ahlin, F. (2017). Financial Activities Linked to Persons from Sweden and Denmark who Joined Terrorist Groups in Syria and Iraq During the Period 2013-2016. Swedish Defence University.
  • Oftedal, E. (2015). "The Financing of Jihadi Terrorist Cells in Europe," Norwegian Defence Research Establishment - FFI
  • Salinas de Frias, A. (2017). Report on Links Between Terrorism and Transnational Organized Crime, Council of Europe Second International Conference on Terrorism and Organised Crime.
  • Saul, B. (2015). "Terrorism as a Legal Concept", in Lennon, G and Walker, C. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Law and Terrorism. Routledge.
  • Sinn, A. (2016). "Transational Organised Crime: Concepts and Critics", in Hauck P. and Peterke, S. (eds.) International Law and Organised Crime. Oxford University Press.

Theoretical Frameworks

  • Ballina, S., (2011). "The Crime-Terror Continuum Revisited: A Model for the Study of Hybrid Criminal Organizations", Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism vol. 6: 121.
  • Bovenkerk, F. & Chakra, B.A., (2007). "Terrorism and Organised Crime", in Holmes, L. (ed.), Terrorism, Organised Crime and Corruption: Networks and Linkages, Edward Elgar.
  • Fredholm, M. (2017). Transnational Organized Crime and Jihadist Terrorism: Russian-Speaking Networks in Western Europe. New York: Routledge.
  • Holmes, L. (2007). Terrorism, Organised Crime and Corruption: Networks and Linkages. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
  • Hübschle, A. (2011). "From Theory to Practice: Exploring the Organised Crime-Terror Nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa", Perspectives on Terrorism vol. 5:3-4.
  • Hutchinson, S. and O'Malley, P. (2007). "A Crime-Terror Nexus? Thinking on Some of the Links between Terrorism and Criminality", Studies in Conflict & Terrorism vol. 30:12, 1095-1107.
  • Makarenko, T., (2010). "The Crime-Terror Nexus: Do Threat Perceptions Align With 'Reality?", in Allum, F., Longo, F., Irrera, D. and Kostakos P.A. (eds), Defining and Defying Organised Crime: Discourse, Perceptions and Reality. Routledge.
  • Reitano, T., Clarke, C. & Adal, L., Examining the Nexus between Organised Crime and Terrorism and its Implications for EU Programming, CT-MORSE Consortium.
  • Rosato, V. (2016). "'Hybrid Orders' between Terrorism and Organized Crime: The Case of Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb", African Security vol. 9:2, 110-135.
  • Schmid, A. P. (1992). "The Response Problem as Definition Problem", Terrorism and Political Violence, 4/4, p. 7-25.
  • Shelley, L. (2014). Dirty Entanglements: Corruption, Crime, and Terrorism. Cambridge University Press.
  • Williams, P. (1998). "Terrorism and Organized Crime: Convergence, Nexus or Transformation?" in Jervas ed. Report on Terrorism, Swedish Defence Research Establishment.


(i)  Drug Trafficking

  • Asal, V. Milward, H.B. and Schoon, E.W. (2015). "When Terrorists Go Bad: Analyzing Terrorist Organizations' Involvement in Drug Smuggling". International Studies Quarterly, vol 59: 112-123.
  • Braun, M., (2008). Drug Trafficking and Middle Eastern Terrorist Groups: A Growing Nexus? Washington Institute .
  • Braun, M., (2012). Iran, Hezbollah and the Threat to the Homeland, Testimony to Committee on Homeland Security, U.S. House of Representatives, Homeland Security Digital Library.
  • Casteel, S. (2003). Narco-Terrorism: International Drug Trafficking and Terrorism - A Dangerous Mix, Testimony before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee.
  • Ciluffo, F. (2000). The Threat Posed form the Convergence of Organised Crime, Drug Trafficking and Terrorism, address before the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Center for Strategic & International Studies, Washington D.C.
  • Curtis, G.E. and Karacan, T. (2002). The Nexus Among Terrorists, Narcotics Traffickers, Weapons Proliferators, And Organised Crime Networks in Western Europe. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Washington D.C.
  • Ehrenfeld, R. (2003). Funding Evil: How Terrorism is Financed and How to Stop It. Chicago and Los Angeles: Bonus Books.
  • Financial Action Task Force (2008). Terrorist Financing Report 29 February 2008.
  • Schmid, Alex, (2014). "Links between Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: A Case of 'Narco-terrorism'?" Turkish Policy Quarterly 1-14.
  • Roth, Mitchel P., and Sever, Murat, (2007). "The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as Criminal Syndicate: Funding Terrorism through Organized Crime, A Case Study", Studies in Conflict and Terrorism vol 30:10, 901-920.
  • Taylor, L. (2017). "Sendero Luminoso in the New Millenium: Comrades, Cocaine and Counter-Insurgency on the Peruvian Frontier", Journal of Agrarian Change, vol. 17, 106-121

(ii)  Arms Trafficking

  • Europol, (2016). Changes in Modus Operandi of Islamic State (IS) Revisited, The Hague.
  • Europol, (2017). European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report.
  • Feinstein, A. & Holden, P. (2014). "Arms Trafficking", in Letizia Paoli (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Organised Crime, OUP.
  • Madsen, F. (2009). Transnational Organised Crime, Routledge.
  • Rothe, D.L. & Ross, J.I. (2012). "The State and Transnational Organised Crime: The Case of Small Arms Trafficking", in Felia Allum & Stan Gilmour (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Transnational Organized Crime, Routledge.

(iii)  Antiquities/Cultural Property

  • Asfour, L. and Scott, M. (2015). "ISIL and the History of Destroying History," Al Jazeera (3 Mar 2015).
  • Bowman B.A, (2008). "Transnational Crimes against Culture", Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice vol. 24:11 225-242.
  • Campbell, P. (2013). "The Illicit Antiquities Trade as a Transnational Criminal Network: Characterizing and Anticipating Trafficking of Cultural Heritage", 20 International Journal of Cultural Property.
  • Danti, M.D., (2015). The Finance of Global Terrorism through Cultural Property Crime in Syria and Northern Iraq. Written statement submitted for testimony before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs (November 2015).
  • Dietzler, J. (2013). "On 'Organized Crime' in the Illicit Antiquities Trade: Moving Beyond the Definitional Debate", Trends in Organized Crime vol.16:3 333.
  • Mackenzie, S. and Davis, T. (2014). "Temple Looting in Cambodia: Anatomy of a Statue Trafficking Network", British Journal of Criminology vol. 8 1-19.
  • MacKenzie, S. and Yates, D. (2017). "What is Grey about the 'Grey Market' in Antiquities", in Beckert J. and Dewey, M. (eds) The Architecture of Illegal Markets: Towards an Economic Sociology of Illegality in the Economy, OUP.
  • Pauwels, A., (2016). ISIS and Illicit Trafficking in Cultural Property: Funding Terrorism through Art, OECD Library (August 2016).
  • Tribble, J. (2015). Antiquities Trafficking and Terrorism: Where Cultural Wealth, Political Violence, and Criminal Networks Intersect.

(iv)  Trafficking in Persons

  • Ashraph, S. referenced in Cathy Otten, (2017). "Slaves of ISIS: The Long Walk of the Yazid". The Guardian (25 July 2017).
  • Callimachi, R. (2015). "ISIS Enshrines a Theology of Rape", The New York Times (14 August 2015).
  • Micallef, M. (2017). The Human Conveyor Belt: Trends in Human Trafficking and Smuggling in Post-Revolution Libya, The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime (March 2017).
  • Saul, B. (2017). "The Legal Relationship between Terrorism and Transnational Crime", International Criminal Law Review, Vol. 17, No. 3 pp. 417-452, 2017.
  • Shelley, L. (2012). Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective, Cambridge University Press.
  • Welch, S.A., (2017). "Human Trafficking and Terrorism: Utilizing National Security Resources to Prevent Human Trafficking in the Islamic State", Duke Journal of Gender Law and Policy vol: 24, 165 - 188

(v)  Intellectual Property Crime

  • Europol (2017). European Union Serious and Organized Crime Threat Assessment: Crime in the Age of Technology. European Police Office 2017.
  • Gastrow, P. (2011). Termites at Work: Transnational Organised Crime and State Erosion in Kenya, International Peace Institute.
  • Lallerstedt. K. and Krassen, P. (2015). How Leading Companies and Affected by Counterfeiting and IP Infringement, Black Market Watch.
  • Noble, R.K., (2003). "Hearing before the United States Committee on International Relations, Hearing on Intellectual Property Crimes: Are Proceeds from Counterfeited Goods Funding Terrorism", 16 July 2003.
  • OECD, (2016). Trade in Counterfeit and Pirated Goods: Mapping the Economic Impact.
  • Sullivan, B.A., Chermak, S.M., Wilson, J.M. and Freilich, J.D (2014). "The Nexus Between Terrorism and Product Counterfeiting in the United States", Global Crime, 15:3-4, 357-378.
  • Sverdlick, A. (2005). "Terrorist and Organised Crime in the 'Triple Frontier' Among Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay", Trends in Organised Crime, vol. 9(2): 84-93.
  • U.S. State Department (2015). The Global Illicit Trade in Tobacco: A Threat to National Security.  

(vi)  Kidnap for Ransom

  • O'Brien, M. (2012). "Fluctuations Between Crime and Terror: The Case of Abu Sayyaf's Kidnapping Activities", Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 24 (2012) 320-336
  • Santos, S.M and Santos, P.V.M., (2010). Al-Harakatul Al-Islamiyya, aka Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), Primed and Purposeful: Armed Groups and Human Security Efforts in the Philippines Geneva: Small Arms Survey.
  • Shortland, A. and Keatinge, T. (2017). Closing the Gap: Assessing Responses to Terrorist-Related Kidnap-for-Ransom, Royal United Services Institute (RUSI), September 2017.

(vii)  Exploitation of Natural Resources

  • OECD (2017). Terrorism, Corruption and the Criminal Exploitation of Natural Resources.

United Nations Reports

  • United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) and Thailand Institute of Justice (2016). Breaking the Organized Crime and Counter-Terrorism Nexus: Identifying Programmatic Approaches. Meeting Report.
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2003). The Opium Economy in Afghanistan: An International Problem. Vienna: UNODC.
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2010). Digest of Terrorist Cases. Vienna: UNODC.
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2012). Trafficking in cultural property: organized crime and the theft of our past. Vienna: UNODC.
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2013). Transnational Organized Crime in West Africa: A Threat Assessment. Vienna: UNODC.
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2015). Study on Firearms 2015: A study on the transnational nature of and routes and modus operandi used in trafficking in firearms. Vienna: UNODC.
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2018). Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. Vienna: UNODC.
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2018). World Drug Report 2018. Vienna: UNODC. 


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