- Positivism: Environmental Influences
- Classical: Pain-Pleasure Decisions
- Structural Factors and Organized Crime
- Ethical Perspective: Moral Failure in Decision-Making
- Perspectives on Crime Causes and Facilitating Factors
Published in May 2018
Regional Perspectives: Pacific Islands Region - added in November 2019
Regional Perspectives: Eastern and Southern Africa - added in April 2020
This module is a resource for lecturers
This section provides a list of (partly open access) materials that the lecturer could ask the students to read before taking a class based on this Module.
- Eckblom, Paul (2003). Organised Crime and the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity Framework. In Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security. A. Edwards and P. Gill, eds. Routledge. 242-63.
- Felbab-Brown, Vanda (2017). Organized Crime, Illicit Economies, Civil Violence & International Order: More Complex Than You Think. Daedalus, vol. 146, 98-111.
- Zabyelina, Yuliya (2014). The 'Fishy' Business: A Qualitative Analysis of the Illicit Market in Black Caviar. Trends in Organized Crime, vol. 17(3), 181-198.
- Locke, Rachel (2012). Organized Crime, Conflict, and Fragility: A New Approach. New York: International Peace Institute.
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (n.d.). Security, the Rule of Law and the post-2015 Development Agenda. UNODC Position Paper.