- Positivism: Environmental Influences
- Classical: Pain-Pleasure Decisions
- Structural Factors and Organized Crime
- Ethical Perspective: Moral Failure in Decision-Making
- Perspectives on Crime Causes and Facilitating Factors
Published in May 2018
Regional Perspectives: Pacific Islands Region - added in November 2019
Regional Perspectives: Eastern and Southern Africa - added in April 2020
This module is a resource for lecturers
Research and independent study questions
a) Choose a recent instance of an organized crime incident in your country/region. Is there any evidence to suggest the applicability of one of the four types of explanations of their motivations?
b) According to some observers, globalization and the deregulation of national economies has led to the growth of illicit opportunities. Discuss the relationship between globalization and organized crime.
c) A growing body of research affirms the pertinence of weak State capacity in increasing vulnerability to organized crime. How does State fragility impact organized crime? Check the most recent Fragile State Index and World Governance Indicators and discuss the correlation between State fragility and organized crime. Provide examples in support of your position.
d) On 7 October 2005, Antonio Maria Costa, former Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), told the Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) as it began its debate on crime prevention and criminal justice and international drug control that "crime was both the cause and consequence of poverty, insecurity and underdevelopment." Elaborate on the statement and provide examples.
e) At the end of September 2015, Heads of States and governments of the Member States of the United Nations adopted the "2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development," which contains 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs). The implementation of the targets anchored in SDG 16 are of central significance for the overall success of the agenda. Review the SDGs and discuss how meeting these goals can impact the international response against transnational organized crime.
f) The challenges in preventing and controlling transnational crime stem from several sources. For example, some crimes arise out of particular socio-cultural conditions and experiences that differ from one country to another. Discuss the role of culture as a possible determinant of organized crime. Provide some examples in support of your position.