- Drug trafficking
- Firearms trafficking
- Wildlife and forest crime
- Counterfeit products trafficking
- Manufacturing of and trafficking in falsified medical products
- Trafficking in cultural property
- Trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants
Published in April 2018, updated in February 2020
Regional Perspectives: Pacific Islands Region - added in November 2019
Regional Perspectives: Eastern and Southern Africa - added in April 2020
This module is a resource for lecturers
Research and independent study questions
a) Trafficking in falsified medical products poses a considerable public health threat. Compounding this public health risk is the fact that the supply chain for medicines operates at a global level. Discuss a cross-border supply chain for the illicit trade in a falsified medical product of your choice.
b) In January 2014, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolutions 2134 and 2136 required all States to adopt sanctions, namely freezing assets and restricting travel, on any individual or entity involved in wildlife and forest trafficking. Study the text of resolutions and elaborate on the illegal wildlife trade in the Democratic Republic of Congo and in the Central African Republic. Who are the perpetrators? What are their motivations and how do they benefit from the illegal wildlife trade? What specific natural resources are exploited? What are the consequences of the illegal wildlife trade in these two African countries, regionally, and globally?
c) The primary impetus behind trafficking of persons is an imbalance in the world labour market. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain your position.
d) According to article 5 of the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, supplementing the Organized Crime Convention, "migrants shall not become liable to criminal prosecution under this Protocol for the fact of having been the object of" smuggling. Therefore, the Protocol requires State parties to criminalize only the smugglers, although in many countries the national legislation criminalizes the acts of both the smugglers and the illegal migrants. Please, find relevant national examples and discuss pros and cons.
e) One of the most effective ways to reduce trafficking in persons is to legalize prostitution. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain your position.
f) The production of heroin and cocaine (and other narcotic substances) requires a significant amount of precursor chemicals. Most of drug trafficking organizations do not have any legitimate source for these chemicals domestically and have to procure them abroad. Discuss the illicit precursor trafficking trends and whether the international anti-drug trafficking regime led by the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), has been able to restrict drug production by focusing on precursor trade and new drug substances.
g) Use UNODC Human Trafficking Case Law Database (Search in section "Keyword" -> "Begging") to study the exploitation of minors in forced begging. In particular, discuss the background of victims (vulnerable groups) and the means of threat or use of force (or other forms of coercion) developed by offenders.