This module is a resource for lecturers  




This Module introduces the gender dimensions of Trafficking in Persons (TIP) and Smuggling of Migrants (SOM).

TIP and SOM are two types of crimes. TIP is first and foremost a serious crime against persons and severe violation of human rights. SOM is primarily a crime against state sovereignty, yet human rights can be violated as part of SOM, especially in case of SOM with aggravating circumstances. These crimes are strongly connected with broader socio-economic and political issues that need to be considered (e.g. migration, global inequalities, unequal access to decent work opportunities, restrictive migration policies). Gender - and gender equality - is a key dimension. Considering gender is crucial, not only to guarantee that women and girls' realities are accounted for and included but also for a better understanding of how gendered inequalities and discrimination are related to TIP and SOM.

This Module is intended to be used as a stand-alone Module. However, it would be useful if students had a basic knowledge and understanding of Trafficking in Persons ( Module 6) and Smuggling of Migrants ( Module 1). Besides, this Module builds on and delves further into the notions and themes addressed in Module 15 "Gender and Organized Crime" of the University Module Series on Organized Crime. In addition, Module 9 "Gender Dimensions of Ethics" of the University Module Series on Integrity and Ethics might also be considered useful. To this end, cross-references to other Modules are included.


Learning outcomes

  • Understand and critically engage with the concept of gender in relation with TIP and SOM
  • Understand and be able to integrate a gender approach - using the concept of intersectionality - to the study of TIP and SOM
  • Recognize and problematize the gender aspects of TIP and SOM, in regard to victims of trafficking, migrants using smugglers, and offenders
  • Gain knowledge on the gender dimensions of the criminal justice response to TIP and SOM.
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