- Aggravating and mitigating factors
- Sentencing options relating to organized crime
- Alternatives to imprisonment
- The death penalty and organized crime
- Backgrounds of convicted offenders
- Confiscation in practice: responding to the movement of criminal assets
Published in May 2018
Regional Perspective: Pacific Islands Region - added in November 2019
Regional Perspective: Eastern and Southern Africa - added in April 2020
This module is a resource for lecturers
This section provides a list of (partly open access) materials that the lecturer could ask the students to read before taking a class based on this Module.
Articles in United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto:
- Article 12. Confiscation and seizure
- Article 13. International cooperation for purposes of confiscation
- Article 14. Disposal of confiscated proceeds of crime or property
Legislative Guides for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto:
- Prosecution, adjudication, and sanctions
- Identification, tracing, freezing or seizure of assets and confiscation of proceeds of crime
- Lai, Gloria (2012). Drugs, Crime and Punishment Proportionality of Sentencing for Drug Offences . Transnational Institute. Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies Nr.20
- McCaw, Catherine E. (2011). Asset Forfeiture as a Form of Punishment: A Case for Integrating Asset Forfeiture into Criminal Sentencing. American Journal of Criminal Law, vol. 38, 181-220
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2012). Manual on International Cooperation for the Purposes of Confiscation of Proceeds of Crime. Vienna: UNODC.
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2017). Effective Management and Disposal of Seized and Confiscated Assets . Vienna: UNODC.
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2010). Drug control, Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice: A Human Rights Perspective. March 23. E/CN.7/2010/CRP.6*-E/CN.15/2010/CRP.1*