This module is a resource for lecturers
The International Centre for the Prevention of Crime (ICPC) is a unique international forum and resource centre dedicated to the exchange of ideas and knowledge on crime prevention and community safety. ICPC seeks to promote crime prevention, encourage the development of inspiring practices, and foster effective exchange between criminal justice systems and civil societies across countries and cities.
The ICPC aims to achieve their mission in a manner consistent with the United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime (1995 and 2002). The guidelines support the implementation of effective, responsible crime prevention strategies to prevent the occurrence of crime, as opposed to largely relying on costly criminal justice responses to deal with crimes after it has already occurred. The ICPC works closely with UNODC and UN-Habitat.
The ICPC performs the following functions to achieve its mission:
- Collating and making accessible the global knowledge on crime prevention developments and effective strategies and practices.
- Promoting the exchange of crime prevention information between policymakers, practitioners and researchers through seminars and conferences.
- Providing technical assistance on the ground.
The ICPC website contains a wealth of resources on crime prevention strategies and successful crime prevention case studies that have been implemented in various countries around the world. It is a valuable resource for lecturers to learn about crime prevention strategies that have been effective in a broad range of contexts.
Resources are mostly published in English, French and/or Spanish. They are categorized as one of the following:
- Compendium of Practices
- Conference Proceedings
- Tools and Guides
The following section contains a brief summary of some of the key resources found on the ICPC website:
- Publication Category: Report
- Date: 2016
- Available Languages: English, French, Spanish
- Summary: This report has been published every 2 years since 2008, and it is a key point of reference for governments, policymakers and practitioners seeking to implement successful and effective crime prevention strategies.
The report contains the following chapters:
- Trends in Crime and its Prevention: there has been a reduction in violent and traditional criminal activity on a global level, but the rate of reduction has varied greatly between regions and countries. Areas such as Latin America continue to experience high rates of crime. Furthermore, the global reduction in crime may be explained by changes in the types of crimes that are being committed. Emerging forms of crime, such as cybercrime may have replaced traditional forms of crime.
- Urban Safety: the incidence of urban crime largely stems from urban inequalities, and deficits in the planning, maintenance and governance of urban spaces. The rapid growth of cities presents challenges in ensuring the quality of these spaces and, where services cannot keep pace with population growth, opportunities for crime are amplified. Local governments play an important role in ensuring the safety of cities, and crime prevention strategies are most effective when they are adapted to the local context, taking into consideration issues such as; gender, race, age and cultural factors.
- Cities, Territory and Public Safety Policies: A Latin American Perspective: a comparative case study of ten Latin American cities revealed that the successful crime prevention policies had the following traits in common:
- Different levels of government and related entities are coordinated effectively
- Citizens of the community actively participate in the processes of implementing crime prevention strategies
- The creation of teams that specialize in safety and security
- Crime Prevention in Urban Public Transport: this chapter considers the relationship between urban public transport, crime prevention, and the fear of crime. The design and layout of a city has an impact on the safety and the perceived safety of transport spaces. Some of the risk factors to crime are related to the characteristics of public transport itself, such as; the location of transport services, large numbers of people utilising public transport and the built environment surrounding public transport services. Moreover, the commercial and social organization that surround public transport spaces influence the way in which people utilize those spaces. The final section of this chapter provides an overview of the crime prevention strategies that have been used in public transport spaces and the international norms that have been adopted to prevent crime in these spaces.
- Crime Prevention in the Relation to Drug Use in the Urban Environment: this chapter focuses on the prevention of drug-related crime in urban contexts. While there is no direct linear relationship between drug use and crime, often the factors that are associated with criminal behaviour are also associated with drug use. Consumption of certain types of drugs are often associated with engaging in certain types of criminal activity. Effective prevention of drug-related crimes need to include the following elements:
- Prevention of drug use itself
- Prevention of crime linked to drug use
- Prevention of reoffending
- The final section of the chapter provides an analysis of the effective drug prevention strategies that have been implemented in eight cities around the world.
- Cities and Preventing Violent Radicalization: radicalization has been an emerging concern in recent times. Often it is young men who become involved in the radicalization process, but there is growing concerns that young women are also becoming involved in this process. Violent radicalization can be the result of both individual and group factors that stem from feelings of isolation, marginalization, segregation and lack of social cohesion. The chapter includes a comparative analysis of the various strategies that have been implemented by various cities to prevent radicalisation. Future debate in this area may include; whether specific strategies to counter radicalization and extremism will be effective in preventing its occurrence, or whether strategies that foster community integration and inclusion will be more effective.
Previous International Reports on Crime Prevention and Community Safety have addressed the following topics:
- 2008: women's safety, youth safety, school safety, safety in public spaces
- 2010: migration, organized crime, drugs and alcohol
- 2012: human trafficking and exploitation, informal settlements, post-conflict and post-disaster areas, drug production in developed countries
- 2014: migration and movement of people within countries and across borders
- Publication Category: Compendium of Practices
- Date: 2015
- Available Languages: English
- Summary: This document is a collation of a 100 urban safety practices. It was written in collaboration with The Global Network on Safer Cities (UN-Habitat) and the European Forum for Urban Safety (Efus).
The safety practices featured in the publication are categorized into the following groups:
- Youth Safety Practices
- Gender Safety Practices
- Urban Development Safety Practices
- Community Mobilisation Safety Practices
- Policing and Security Safety Practices
- Governance Safety Practices
The safety practices are drawn from cities and regions around the globe. And each case study includes a brief summary and overview of the crime prevention strategy. It contains the following information:
- Where the strategy was implemented
- When the strategy was implemented
- What the objectives of the strategy were
- What the strategy entailed and how it was enacted
- Who the target population were
- Who the main partners were
- What were the outcomes of the strategy
- Where to get further information about the strategy
Similar Compendium Documents:
Additional compendiums of practice are available on the ICPC website, featuring crime prevention case studies that have been implemented in various locations around the world.
The Center for Problem-Oriented Policing (hereafter, the Center) is non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the concept and practice of problem-oriented policing (POP). The Center was established in 1999 by the United States Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. The Center publishes a range of POP guides on their website, to enable police officers and other stakeholders to more effectively address specific crime and disorder problems.
Each guide summarizes the available knowledge on how police can most effectively address specific crime and disorder problems. The guides are informed by research findings and police practices. Guides are also peer reviewed by a line police officer, a police executive and a researcher prior to publication.
Currently, there are 73 Problem Guides published on the Center's website. These problem specific guides summarize the current knowledge on a particular crime problem.
The Problem Guides cover topics such as:
- Assaults in and around bars
- Speeding in residential areas
- Thefts of and from cars in parking facilities
- Bullying in schools
- Misuse and abuse of 911
- Financial crimes against the elderly
- Identity theft
- Bomb threats in schools
- Drunk driving
- Juvenile runaways
- Domestic violence
- Bank robbery
- Bicycle theft
- Drug-impaired driving
- Hate crimes
In addition to the POP guides, the Center also provides a range of innovative learning experiences, curriculum guides, teaching aids, problem analysis tools, and other informational resources.
Currently, there are 13 Response Guides available on the Center's website. Response Guides collate the current knowledge attained from both research and practice, on how and under what conditions, police responses are effective in preventing crime.
The Response Guides cover such topics as:
- The benefits and consequences of police crackdowns
- Shifting and sharing responsibilities for public safety problems
- Video surveillance in public places
- Crime prevention publicity campaigns
- Improving street lighting to reduce crime in residential areas
- Dealing with crime and disorder in public parks
- Assigning police officers to schools
- Focused deterrence on high-risk individuals
Problem-Solving Tool Guides
Currently, there are 13 Problem-Solving Tool Guides available on the Center's website. Problem-Solving Tool Guides explain how various analytical methods and techniques can be applied to improve an understanding of crime and disorder problems.
The Problem-Solving Tool Guides cover such topics as:
- Assessing responses to problems
- Researching a problem
- Analysing repeat victimisation
- Partnering with businesses to address public safety problems
- Implementing responses to problems
- Using CPTED in problem-solving
- Analysing crime displacement and diffusion
- Analysing and responding to repeat offending
- Identifying and defining police problems
As mentioned in " Topic Four", the Campbell Collaboration is an international, non-profit research network that produces high quality systematic reviews of interventions related to crime and justice, education, international development and social welfare (Campbell Collaboration, 2016). Their sister organization, Cochrane, is focused on publishing systematic reviews in the areas of medicine and health care.
Next: Systematic reviews