This module is a resource for lecturers  


Advanced reading


The following readings are recommended for students interested in exploring the topics of this Module in more detail, and for lecturers teaching the Module: 

Gender and drug trafficking

  • Bourgois, Philippe (1996). "In search of masculinity: violence, respect and sexuality among Puerto Rican crack dealers in East Harlem." The British Journal of Criminology 36, no. 3: 412-427.
  • Bourgois, Philippe (2003). In search of respect: Selling crack in El Barrio. Cambridge University Press: New York.
  • Carey, Elaine (2014). Women drug traffickers: mules, bosses and organized crime. University of New Mexico Press: Santa Fe.
  • Cruz, Luis Felipe and Margarita Martinez Osorio (2018). The Place that female coca growers deserve. DeJusticia. 14 March 2018
  • Estévez, Ariadna (2017). "La violencia contra las mujeres y la crisis de derechos humanos: de la narcoguerra a las guerras necropolíticas."  Revista interdisciplinaria de estudios de género de El Colegio de México 3, no. 6: 69-100
  • Fleetwood, Jennifer (2014). Drug mules: women in the international cocaine trade. Palgrave MacMillan: London.
  • Equis Justicia para las Mujeres (2018). Politicas de drogas, género y encarcelamiento en Mexico: una guía para políticas públicas incluyentes. Mexico City: Mexico, 2018.
  • Guerra, Santiago Ivan (2015). "La Chota y Los Mafiosos: Mexican American casualties of the border drug war."  Latino Studies 13, no. 2: 227-244.
  • Hübschle, Annette (2014). "Of bogus hunters, queenpins and mules: the varied roles of women in transnational organized crime in Southern Africa."  Trends in organized crime 17, no. 1-2: 31-51.
  • Muehlmann, Shaylih (2018). "The Gender of the War on Drugs."  Annual Review of Anthropology.Vol. 47:315-330.
  • Núñez Noriega, Guillermo, and Claudia Esthela Espinoza Cid (2017). "El narcotráfico como dispositivo de poder sexo-genérico: crimen organizado, masculinidad y teoría queer."  Revista interdisciplinaria de estudios de género de El Colegio de México 3, no. 5: 90-128.
  • Padovani, Natália Corazza (2016). "Plotting prisons, flows and affections: Brazilian female prisoners between the transnational drug trade and sex markets in Barcelona."  Criminology & Criminal Justice 16, no. 3: 366-385.
  • Padovani, Natália Corazza (2017). "Trafficking Of Women In Prisons Entrances Or Security And Gender Devices In The Production Of "Dangerous Classes."  Cadernos Pagu 51 (in Portuguese).
  • Urquiza‐Haas, Nayeli (2017). "Vulnerability Discourses and Drug Mule Work: Legal Approaches in Sentencing and Non‐Prosecution/Non‐Punishment Norms."  The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice 56, no. 3: 309-325.
  • Van San, Marion, and Elga Sikkens (2017). "Families, Lovers, and Friends: Women, Social Networks, and Transnational Cocaine Smuggling from Curaçao and Peru." The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice 56, no. 3: 343-357.
  • Washington Office for Latin America (WOLA) (2017). The Stories of Women in Prison for Drug Related Crimes. Video Series. Washington DC.
  • Washington Office for Latin America (WOLA), IDPC, DeJusticia, CIM, Organizacion de Estados Americanos (2013). Women, Drug Policies and Incarceration: A guide for Policy reform in Latin America and the Caribbean. WOLA: Washington DC.
  • Zaitch, Damián (2002). Trafficking cocaine: Colombian drug entrepreneurs in the Netherlands. Vol. 1. Springer Science and Business Media.

Women's roles in (organized) crime

  • Ali, Badr‐el‐Din (1997). "Female criminality in modern Egypt: A general outlook."  International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 21, no. 2: 267-285.
  • Arsovska, Jana and Felia Allum (2014), eds. "Special Issue: Women and Transnational Organized Crime." Trends in Organized Crime. Vol. 17, 1-2.
  • Arsovska, Jana, and Popy Begum (2014). "From West Africa to the Balkans: exploring women's roles in transnational organized crime."  Trends in organized crime 17, no. 1-2: 89-109.
  • Fiandaca, Giovanni ed. (2007). Women and the mafia: Female roles in organized crime structures. Vol. 5. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Kleemans, Edward R., Edwin W. Kruisbergen, and Ruud F. Kouwenberg (2014). "Women, brokerage and transnational organized crime. Empirical results from the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor." Trends in organized crime 17, no. 1-2: 16-30.
  • Lima Malvido María de la Luz (2004). Criminalidad Femenina. Teorías y reacción social. Editorial Porrúa: 2004. 
  • Pizzini-Gambetta, Valeria (2014). "Organized crime: the gender constraints of illegal markets."  The Oxford handbook of gender, sex, and crime: 448-467.
  • Shen, Anqi (2016). "Female Membership in the Black-Society Style Criminal Organizations: Evidence From a Female Prison in China." Feminist Criminology 11, no. 1: 69-90.
  • Shen, Anqi, and Simon Winlow (2014). "Women and crime in contemporary China: A review essay." International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 38, no. 4: 327-342.
  • Siegel, Dina (2014). "Women in transnational organized crime."  Trends in organized crime 17, no. 1-2: 52-65.
  • Zhang, Sheldon X., and Ko-lin Chin (2008). "Snakeheads, mules, and protective umbrellas: A review of current research on Chinese organized crime." Crime, Law and Social Change 50, no. 3: 177-195.

Women and trafficking in persons

  • Agustin, Laura (2007). Sex in the Margins: migration, labour markets and the rescue industry.  London: Zed Books.
  • Brennan, Denise (2014). Life Interrupted: trafficking and forced labor in the United States. Duke University Press.
  • Cabezas, Amalia L. (2016). Invisible Dominican Women: Discourses of Trafficking into Puerto Rico. Cadernos pagu, 47.
  • Kempadoo, Kamala (2012). Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New perspectives on migration, sex work and human rights. 2 nd edition. London: Routledge.
  • Piscitelli, Adriana (2016). Economias sexuais, amor e tráfico de pessoas-novas questões conceituais. Cadernos pagu 47: 132-162.
  • Plambech, Sine and Denisse Brennan (2018). "Life after trafficking". Special Issue, Anti-Trafficking Review Journal, vol. 10.
  • Rosseau, David (2018). "From passive victims to partners in their own integration: civil society's role in empowering returned Thai fishermen". Anti-Trafficking Review, vol. 10, (88-104). 
  • Seagrave, Marie, Sonja Milivojevic and Sharon Pickering (2012). Sex trafficking: international context and response. Willan, London.
  • Surtees, Rebecca (2018). "At home: family reintegration of trafficked Indonesian men". Anti-Trafficking Review Journal, 10: 70-87, 2018. 

Women and migrant smuggling

  • Brigden, Noelle K (2018). "Gender mobility: survival plays and performing Central American migration in passage."  Mobilities 13, no. 1: 111-125.
  • Mainwaring, Ċetta, and Noelle Brigden, eds (2016). "Beyond the border: Clandestine migration journeys." Special Issue of Geopolitics: 243-262.
  • Sanchez, Gabriella (2016). "Women's Participation in the Facilitation of Human Smuggling: The Case of the US Southwest."  Geopolitics21(2), pp.387-406.
  • Vogt, Wendy (2016). "Stuck in the middle with you: The intimate labours of mobility and smuggling along Mexico's migrant route."  Geopolitics 21, no. 2: 366-386.
  • Zhang, Sheldon X., Ko‐Lin Chin, and Jody Miller (20107. "Women's participation in Chinese transnational human smuggling: a gendered market perspective." Criminology 45, no. 3: 699-733.

The impact of criminalization across race, gender, class

  • Agboola, Caroline (2017). "'Why do they need to punish you more?': women's lives after imprisonment. South African Review of Sociology 48, no. 2: 32-48.
  • Bermudez, Natalia (2016). " 'Algo habrán hecho': un análisis sobre las contiendas morales en el acceso a la condición de activista familiar en casos de muertes violentas" (Córdova, Argentina). Antipoda, Revista de Antropologia y Arqueologia 25, 59-73.
  • Chavez Villegas, C. (2018). Youth and Organized Crime in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico: An exploration of contributing factors (Doctoral thesis). Cambridge University: Cambridge.
  • Khalid, Adeela, and Nashi Khan (2013). "Pathways of women prisoners to jail in Pakistan."  Health promotion perspectives 3, no. 1: 31.
  • Maghsoudi, Aliasghar, Nahid Rahimipour Anaraki, and Dariush Boostani (2018). "Patriarchy as a contextual and gendered pathway to crime: a qualitative study of Iranian women offenders."  Quality & Quantity 52, no. 1 (2018): 355-370.
  • Mairaj, Saira, Rubina Munir; Sajjad Hussain, Sajjad, Muhhamad Khan (2017). Female Probationers in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Criminology, Vol. 9 Issue 2, p. 1-14.
  • Meneses, Rodrigo, and Gustavo Fondevila (2014). "Mapping the Killer State: Gender, Space, and Deaths Due to Legal Intervention in Mexico (2004-2010)."  Women & Criminal Justice 24, no. 4: 306-323.
  • Menjívar, Cecilia, and Shannon Drysdale Walsh (2017). "The architecture of femicide: the state, inequalities, and everyday gender violence in Honduras." Latin American research review 52, no. 2.
  • Naqvi, Razia Hussain (2015). "Situational Analysis of Female Offenders in Jails: A Case Study of Central Jails of Dera Ismail Khan, Haripur & Peshawar."  Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 7, no. 3: 12-21.
  • Sadeghi-Fassaei, Soheila, and Kathleen Kendall (2001). "Iranian women's pathways to imprisonment." Women's Studies International Forum, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 701-710. Pergamon.
  • Small Arms Survey (2016). A gendered analysis of violent deaths. Small Arms Survey: Geneva. 
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2007). Afghanistan: Female Prisoners and their Social Reintegration. UNODC: Vienna.
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2011). United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-Custodial Measures for Women Offenders with their Commentary. UNODC: Vienna.
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2014). Handbook on Women and Imprisonment. UNODC: Vienna.
  • UNLIREC (2015). Violencia armada, violencia por motivos de género y armas pequeñas: sistematización de datos disponibles en América Latina y el Caribe. Centro de las Naciones Unidas Regional para la paz, el desarme y el desarrollo en América Latina y el Caribe:  La Paz.
  • Veloso, Diana Therese M. (2016). "Of Culpability and Blamelessness: The Narratives of Women Formerly on Death Row in the Philippines."  Asia-Pacific Social Science Review 16, no. 1: 1-1.


  • Deuchar, Ross (2018). "Gang Members 'Doing Masculinity'." Gangs and Spirituality (pp. 19-37). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
  • Ganapathy, Narayanan, and Lavanya Balachandran (2018). " 'Racialized masculinities': A gendered response to marginalization among Malay boys in Singapore." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology.
  • Henry, Robert (2015). "Social Spaces of Maleness: the role of street gangs in practising indigenous masculinities." in: Innes, Robert Alexander and Kim Anderson, eds. Indigenous Men and Masculinities: Legacies, Identities, Regeneration. University of Manitoba Press.
  • Innes, Robert Alexander and Kim Anderson, ed (2015). Indigenous Men and Masculinities: Legacies, Identities, Regeneration. University of Manitoba Press.
  • Piche, Allison (2015). "Imprisonment and Indigenous masculinity: contesting hegemonic masculinity in a toxic environment." in: Innes, Robert Alexander and Kim Anderson, ed. Indigenous Men and Masculinities: Legacies, Identities, Regeneration. University of Manitoba Press.

Indigenous women

  • Hernández, Aida R (2013). "Del estado multicultural al estado penal: mujeres indígenas presas y criminalización de la pobreza." in: Sierra, María Teresa, Rosalva Aída Hernández and Rachel Sieder (eds.). Justicias Indígenas y Estado: Violencias Contemporáneas. FLACSO México: Mexico City. p. 299-338.
  • McIntosh, Tracey and Stan Coster (2017). "Indigenous insider knowledge and prison identity." Counterfutures: Aotearoa/New Zealand.
  • Native Women's Association of Canada (NWCA) (2015). "Why are so many First Nations, Inuit and Métis women and girls criminalized?" Youth Focus Part 2. NWCA: Ottawa.
  • Nine to Noon (2015). "Why more New Zealand women, particularly Maori are being jailed." Interview with Tracey McIntosh,  Radio New Zealand. 23 April 2015.
  • Ojeda Dávila, Lorena (2015). "Cheran: el poder del consenso y las luchas comunitarias." Política Común. Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Vol. 7. 2015.
  • Ortega, Rosalba Robles (2015). "Hidden Gender Violence in the War on Organized Crime in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (2010-2011)."  Journal: Journal of Advances in Humanities 4, no. 1.
  • Park, Min Jee Yamada, and Samantha Jeffries (2018). "Prisoners of identity: The experiences of ethnic minority Vietnamese women categorised as foreign in Cambodian prisons." Women's Studies International Forum, vol. 69, pp. 56-66. Pergamon.
  • Sierra, María Teresa, Rosalva Aída Hernández and Rachel Sieder (eds.) (2013). Justicias Indígenas y Estado: Violencias Contemporáneas. FLACSO Mexico: Mexico City.



Green criminology

  • McElwee, Pamela (2012). "The Gender Dimensions of the Illegal Trade in Wildlife." Gender and Sustainability: Lessons from Asia and Latin America. University of Arizona Press: Tucson: 71.
  • Sollund, Ragnhild (2017). "Doing green, critical criminology with an auto-ethnographic, feminist approach." Critical Criminology 25, no. 2: 245-260.
  • Sollund, Ragnhild (2017). "The use and abuse of animals in wildlife trafficking in Colombia: Practices and injustice." Environmental Crime in Latin America, pp. 215-243. Palgrave Macmillan, London.


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