- Assistance and protection in the Protocol
- International human rights and refugee law
- Vulnerable groups
- Positive and negative obligations of the State
- Identification of smuggled migrants and first responses
- Participation of smuggled migrants in legal proceedings
- The role of non-governmental organizations
- Smuggled migrants & other categories of migrants
- Short-, mid- and long-term measures
Published in January 2019.
This module is a resource for lecturers
Protection of smuggled migrants vis-à-vis other categories of migrants
While the rights and entitlements developed throughout this Module are not unique to smuggled migrants, it is important to bear in mind that, at times, smuggled migrants may be in particularly vulnerable situations. For instance, as noted above, they are vulnerable to potential intimidation or retaliation by smugglers. Even if they do not intend to cooperate with State authorities, suspicion that they might do so may trigger aggressive behaviour from organized criminal groups. Special protective measures might, in such cases, be a priority. The violence and degrading treatment they might have suffered in the hands of smugglers is likely to require tailored professional support. They are prone to exploitation as well.