- Positivism: Environmental Influences
- Classical: Pain-Pleasure Decisions
- Structural Factors and Organized Crime
- Ethical Perspective: Moral Failure in Decision-Making
- Perspectives on Crime Causes and Facilitating Factors
Published in May 2018
Regional Perspectives: Pacific Islands Region - added in November 2019
Regional Perspectives: Eastern and Southern Africa - added in April 2020
This module is a resource for lecturers
The following readings are recommended for students interested in exploring the topics of this Module in more detail, and for lecturers teaching the Module:
Akers, Ronald L., Christine S. Sellers, Wesley G. Jennings (2016). Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application, 7th ed. Oxford University Press.
Bullock, K., R.V. Clarke, and N. Tilley (2010). Situational Prevention of Organised Crimes. Willan Publishing.
Cloward, Richard A. and Lloyd E. Ohlin (1960). Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs. New York: Free Press.
Hobbs, Dick (2013). Lush life: Constructing Organized Crime in the UK. Oxford University Press.
Passas, Nikos (2001). Globalization and Transnational Organized Crime: Effects of Criminogenic Asymmetries. In P. Williams and D. Vlassis, eds., Combating Transnational Organized Crime: Concepts, Activities and Responses, London: Frank Cass.
Valasik, Matthew (2014). Classical Criminology. In J. Albanese, ed. Encyclopedia of Criminology & Criminal Justice. Wiley.
Zabyelina, Yuliya G. (2016). Can Criminals Create Opportunities for Crime? Malvertising and Illegal Online Medicine Trade. Global Crime, vol. 17, 1-18.