This module is a resource for lecturers
This section contains suggestions for in-class and pre-class educational exercises, while a post-class assignment for assessing student understanding of the Module is suggested in a separate section. It is important to review and assess which exercises you will use well before the class takes place and assign to your students any necessary research and reading to help the exercise go smoothly and efficiently. For example in Exercise 3, you will benefit in class if before class the students have familiarized themselves with the countries and the brief working papers.
The exercises in this section are most appropriate for classes of up to 50 students, where students can be easily organized into small groups in which they discuss cases or conduct activities before group representatives provide feedback to the entire class. Although it is possible to have the same small group structure in large classes comprising a few hundred students, it is more challenging and the lecturer might wish to adapt facilitation techniques to ensure sufficient time for group discussions as well as providing feedback to the entire class. The easiest way to deal with the requirement for small group discussion in a large class is to ask students to discuss the issues with the four or five students sitting closest to them. Given time limitations, not all groups will be able to provide feedback in each exercise. It is recommended that the lecturer makes random selections and tries to ensure that all groups get the opportunity to provide feedback at least once during the session. If time permits, the lecturer could facilitate a discussion in plenary after each group has provided feedback.
All exercises in this section are appropriate for both graduate and undergraduate students. However, as students' prior knowledge and exposure to these issues vary widely, decisions about the appropriateness of exercises should be based on their educational and social context. The lecturer is encouraged to relate and connect each exercise to the key issues of the Module.
It is recommended that lecturers begin building a conducive and friendly environment at the start of class and before conducting the very first exercise. This can be done by breaking the ice in a supportive way, by respectfully examining students' starting orientations to corruption, and by demonstrating genuine interest in their perspectives. Once students come to see the lecturer as respectful, genuinely interested in their orientation to the material, and consistent in policing any snide or unsupportive comments by class members, that safe space will enable effective learning and development.
Exercise 1: What is good governance?
Show the students this TEDx talk by Ben Warner (2015). After the students watch the video ask them to explain how they understand the term "good governance".
To facilitate the discussion the lecturer should consider asking the students the following questions:
- What is politics about?
- What is governance about?
- What is good governance about and why is it important in the fight against corruption?
- Which role can citizens play to improve the quality of good governance?
Exercise 2: Scenarios in the public sector
Ask the students to discuss the following questions, first in pairs or small groups, and then with the larger class:
- You are at the hospital standing in a long line to get some free medicine. You see an opportunity to skip the line. Would you do it? Yes, no? Why or why not?
- Would your answer change if your son, daughter, brother, sister, or parent needed the medicine in a hurry? Yes, no? Why or why not?
- Change the situation above to accepting a bribe, or changing the terms of reference of a contract to favour your friends. Would your answer be different?
- Drawing on the teaching of this Module, which governance principles are likely to prevent the wrongdoing, why and why not?
- What if you are the hospital staff giving out the medicine? Would it be appropriate for you to give the medicine to friends or family, not waiting in line? Do you think some people would give the medicine out to strangers for a bribe? What governance tool do you think could be used to prevent this?
Lecturers should encourage students to share their answers and the reasoning behind their choices. Lecturers should not evaluate or criticize students' answers; rather they should encourage students to share what they believe, and direct them to think thoroughly. Ambiguity and differences are expected to appear in students' arguments. Lecturers could summarize the discussion, and explain to the students that in order to resolve the ambiguity and differences that were expressed, they could obtain more knowledge about principles of good governance and how they would affect the day to day activities of citizens.
Exercise 3: Good guy, bad guy
Students should describe how they imagine the ideal "good" politician who governs a country as well as the "bad" politician who leads a state. They can refer to socio-demographic factors, certain characteristics or specific actions. They can present their thoughts in groups or in front of the class.
Give the students a few minutes to write down their answers, and then ask them to advocate their views and listen carefully to the views of others. Make sure to encourage as many of them as possible to participate in the discussion. Capture their criteria for "good" and "bad" politicians on a flipchart or board and try to group them according to the principles of good governance, discussed in the Key Issues section.
Exercise 4: Successful governance efforts (case studies)
Students should be divided into several groups according to the following cases that are described in Johnston's paper: Johnston, Michael (2002). Good Governance: Rule of Law, Transparency, and Accountability ( pp. 14-26):
- Bangalore, pp. 14-17
- Botswana, pp. 17-18
- Mexico, pp. 18-19
- Hong Kong, pp. 19-20
- New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), pp. 21-22
- Council of Europe's Group of States Against Corruption, pp. 22-23
- Ukraine, pp. 23-24
- Mozambique, pp. 24-26
Ask the students to describe the cases and explain why governance efforts were successful. If necessary, they should look for additional information on the Internet.
Gives students 20 minutes to read the case and prepare individual answers to the above question. Have students discuss their answers in small groups and elect a spokesperson to present their findings in front of the class (10 minutes).
In case of time limitations, the lecturer may wish to assign the above paper as a pre-class reading. Thus, the students will be familiar with the specific cases in advance and will come prepared for the in-class exercise.
Exercise 5: From ideas to action: development of a roadmap
The students nominate one of them to play the role of a newly elected president in a country where citizens are highly unsatisfied with the work of the government and suffer from systemic corruption (the students can also choose the country). The president is committed to improve the governance and to reduce corruption, but he/she needs to figure out the best approach to do so with the help of his/her citizens.
After the students nominate the president, divide the rest of them into groups. Ask each group to develop a roadmap, including guidelines of how to improve the quality of (good) governance and reducing corruption in a country. Then each group should present its roadmap in front of the class. The president should ask questions and choose the best roadmap at the end of the exercise. The lecturer should facilitate the discussion and help the president formulate the criteria for selecting the best roadmap.
Next: Possible class structure